Anticancer Drugs

Anticancer Drugs

Definition

Anticancer, or antineoplastic, drugs are used to treat malignancies, or cancerous growths. Drug therapy may be used alone, or in combination with other treatments such as surgery or radiation therapy.

Purpose

Anticancer drugs are used to control the growth of cancerous cells. Cancer is commonly defined as the uncontrolled growth of cells, with loss of differentiation and commonly, with metastasis, spread of the cancer to other tissues and organs. Cancers are malignant growths. In contrast, benign growths remain encapsulated and grow within a well-defined area. Although benign tumors may be fatal if untreated, due to pressure on essential organs, as in the case of a benign brain tumor, surgery or radiation are the preferred methods of treating growths which have a well defined location. Drug therapy is used when the tumor has spread, or may spread, to all areas of the body.

Description

Several classes of drugs may be used in cancer treatment, depending on the nature of the organ involved. For example, breast cancers are commonly stimulated by estrogens, and may be treated with drugs that inactivate the sex hormones. Similarly, prostate cancer may be treated with drugs that inactivate androgens, the male sex hormone. However, the majority of antineoplastic drugs act by interfering with cell growth. Since cancerous cells grow more rapidly than other cells, the drugs target those cells that are in the process of reproducing themselves. As a result, antineoplastic drugs will commonly affect not only the cancerous cells, but others cells that commonly reproduce quickly, including hair follicles, ovaries and testes, and the blood-forming organs.

Newer methods of antineoplastic drug therapy have taken different approaches, including angiogenesisthe inhibition of formation of blood vessels feeding the tumor and contributing to tumor growth. Although these approaches hold promise, they are not yet in common use. Developing new anticancer drugs is the work of ongoing research. In 2003, a new technique was developed to streamline the search for effective drugs. Researchers pumped more than 23,000 chemical compounds through a screening technique to identify those that help fight cancer while leaving healthy cells unharmed. The system identified nine compounds matching the profile, including one previously unidentified drug for fighting cancer. They have expanded their research to determine how the drug might be developed. This was an important step

Anti Cancer Drugs
Generic (Brand Name) Clinical Uses Common Side
Effects To Drug
Altretamine (Hexalen) Treatment of
advanced ovarian
cancer
Bone marrow
depression, nausea
and vomiting
Asparaginase (Elspar) Commonly used in
combination with
other drugs; refrac-
tory acute lymphocy-
tic leukemia
Liver, kidney,
pancreas, CNS
abnormalities,
Bleomycin (Blenoxane) Lymphomas,
Hodgkin's disease,
testicular cancer
Hair loss, stomatitis,
pulmonary toxicity,
hyperpigmentation
of skin
Busulfan (Myleran) Chronic granulocytic
leukemia
Bone marrow
depression,
pulmonary toxicity
Carboplatin (Paraplatin) Pallilation of ovarian
cancer
Bone marrow
depression, nausea
and vomiting
Carmustine Hodgkin's disease,
brain tumors, multi-
ple myeloma,
malig-
nant melonoma
Bone marrow
depression, nausea
and vomiting, toxic damage to liver
Chlorambucil (Leukeran) Chronic lymphocytic
leukemia, non-
Hodgkin's
lymphomas, breast
and ovarian cancer
Bone marrow
depression, excess
uric acid in blood
Cisplatin (Platinol) Treatment of bladder,
ovarian,
uterine, testicular,
head and neck
cancers
Renal toxicity and
ototoxicity
Cladribine (Leustatin) Hairy cell leukemia Bone marrow
depression, nausea
and vomiting, fever
Cyclophosphamide
(Cytoxan)
Hodgkin's disease,
non-Hodgkin's lym-
phomas, neuroblas-
toma.
Often used
with other drugs for
breast, ovarian, and
lung cancers; acute
lymphoblastic leuke-
mia in children; mul-
tiple myeloma
Bone marrow
depression, hair loss,
nausea and vomiting,
inflammation of the
bladder
Cytarabine (Cytosar-U) Leukemias occurring
in adults and children
Bone marrow
depression, nausea
and vomiting,
diarrhea, stomatitis
Dacarbazine (DTIC-
Dome)
Hodgkin's disease,
malignant melanoma
Bone marrow
depression, nausea
and vomiting
Diethylstilbestrol (DES)
(Stilbestrol)
Breast cancer in
post-menopausal
women, prostate
cancer
Hair loss, nausea and
vomiting, edema,
excess calcium in
blood; feminizing
effects in men
Ethinyl
estradiol (Estinyl)
Advanced breast
cancer in post-
menopausal women,
prostate cancer
Excess calcium in
blood, anorexia,
edema, nausea and
vomiting; feminizing
effects in men
Etoposide (VePesid) Acute leukemias,
lymphomas, testicu-
lar cancer
Bone marrow
depression, nausea
and vomiting, hair loss
Anti Cancer Drugs (continued)
Generic (Brand Name) Clinical Uses Common Side
Effects to Drug
Mitomycin (Mutamycin) Bladder, breast,
colon, lung,
pancreas, rectum
cancers, head and
neck cancer,
malig-
nant melanoma
Bone marrow
depression, nausea
and vomiting,
diarrhea, stomatitis,
possible tissue
damage
Mitotane (Lysodren) Cancer of the adrenal
cortex (inoperable)
Damage to adrenal
cortex, nausea,
anorexia
Mitoxantrone (Novantrone) Acute nonlymphocy-
tic leukemia
Cardiac arrhythmias,
labored breating,
nausea and vomiting,
diarrhea, fever,
congestive heart
failure
Paclitaxel (Taxol) Advanced ovarian
cancer
Bone marrow
depression, hair loss,
nausea and vomiting,
hypotension, allergic
reactions, slow heart
action, muscle and
joint pain
Pentastatin (Nipent) Hairy cell leukemia
unresponsive to
alpha-interferon
Bone marrow
depression, fever,
skin rash, liver
damage, nausea and
vomiting
Pipobroman (Vercyte) Chronic granulocytic
leukemia
Bone marrow
depression
Plicamycin (Mithracin) Testucular tumors Toxicity/damage
to bone marrow,
kidneys, and liver
Prednisone (Meticorten) Used in adjunct ther-
apy for palliation of
symptoms in lympho-
mas, acute leukemia
Hodgkin's disease
May be toxic to all
body systems
Procarbazine (Matulane) Hodgkin's disease Bone marrow
depression, nausea
and vomiting
Streptozocin (Zanosar) Islet cell carcinoma of
pancreas
Nausea and vomiting,
toxicity to kidneys
Tamoxifen (Nolvadex) Advanced breast can-
cer in post
menopausal
Nausea and vomiting,
ocular toxicity, hot
flashes
Teniposide (Vumon) Acute lymphocytic
leukemia in children
See Etoposide
Vinblastine (Velban) Breast cancer,
Hodgkin's disease,
metastatic testicular
cancer
Bone marrow
depression,
neurotoxicity
Vincristine (Oncovin) Acute leukemia,
Hodgkin's disease,
lymphomas
Constipation,
neurotoxicity,
possible tissue
necrosis

in identifying anticancer dugs that are not completely toxic to healthy cells.

Antineoplastic drugs may be divided into two classes: cycle specific and non-cycle specific. Cycle specific drugs act only at specific points of the cell's duplication cycle, such as anaphase or metaphase, while non-cycle specific drugs may act at any point in the cell cycle. In order to gain maximum effect, antineoplastic drugs are commonly used in combinations.

Precautions

Because antineoplastic agents do not target specific cell types, they have a number of common adverse side effects. Hair loss is common due to the effects on hair follicles, and anemia, immune system impairment, and clotting problems are caused by destruction of the blood-forming organs, leading to a reduction in the number of red cells, white cells, and platelets. Because of the frequency and severity of these side effects, it is common to administer chemotherapy in cycles, allowing time for recovery from the drug effects before administering the next dose. Doses are often calculated, not on the basis of weight, but rather based on blood counts, in order to avoid dangerous levels of anemia (red cell depletion), neutropenia (white cell deficiency), or thrombocytopenia (platelet deficiency.)

The health professional has many responsibilities in dealing with patients undergoing chemotherapy. The patient must be well informed of the risks and benefits of chemotherapy, and must be emotionally prepared for the side effects. These may be permanent, and younger patients should be aware of the high risk of sterility after chemotherapy.

The patient must also know which side effects should be reported to the practitioner, since many adverse effects do not appear until several days after a dose of chemotherapy. When chemotherapy is self-administered, the patient must be familiar with proper use of the drugs, including dose scheduling and avoidance of drug-drug and food-drug interactions.

Appropriate steps should be taken to minimize side effects. These may include administration of antinauseant medications to reduce nausea and vomiting, maintaining fluid levels to reduce drug toxicity, particularly to the kidneys, or application of a scalp tourniquet to reduce blood flow to the scalp and minimize hair loss due to drug therapy.

Patients receiving chemotherapy also are at risk of infections due to reduced white blood counts. While prophylactic antibiotics may be useful, the health care professional should also be sure to use standard precautions, including gowns and gloves when appropriate. Patients should be alerted to avoid risks of viral contamination, and live virus immunizations are contraindicated until the patient has fully recovered from the effects of chemotherapy. Similarly, the patient should avoid contact with other people who have recently had live virus immunizations.

Other precautions which should be emphasized are the risks to pregnant or nursing women. Because antineoplastic drugs are commonly harmful to the fetus, women of childbearing potential should be cautioned to use two effective methods of birth control while receiving cancer chemotherapy. This also applies if the woman's male partner is receiving chemotherapy. Breastfeeding should be avoided while the mother is being treated.

KEY TERMS

Cataract Clouding of the lens of the eye, leading to poor vision or blindness.

Impotent Unable to achieve or maintain an erection of the penis.

Before prescribing or administering anticancer drugs, health care providers should inquire whether the patient has any of the following conditions:

  • chickenpox or recent exposure to someone with chickenpox
  • shingles (Herpes zoster)
  • mouth sores
  • current or past seizures
  • head injury
  • nerve or muscle disease
  • hearing problems
  • infection of any kind
  • gout
  • colitis
  • intestine blockage
  • stomach ulcer
  • kidney stones
  • kidney disease
  • liver disease
  • current or past alcohol abuse
  • immune system disease
  • cataracts or other eye problems
  • high cholesterol

Other precautions

The anticancer drug methotrexate has additional precautions. Patients should be given advice on the effects of sun exposure and the use of alcohol and pain relievers.

Side effects

Tamoxifen

The anticancer drug tamoxifen (Nolvadex) increases the risk of cancer of the uterus in some women. It also causes cataracts and other eye problems. Women taking this drug may have hot flashes, menstrual changes, genital itching, vaginal discharge, and weight gain. Men who take tamoxifen may lose interest in sex or become impotent. Health care providers should keep in close contact with patients to assess the individual risks associated with taking this powerful drug.

Other anticancer drugs

These side effects are not common, but could be a sign of a serious problem. Health care providers should immediately be consulted if any of the following occur:

  • black, tarry, or bloody stools
  • blood in the urine
  • diarrhea
  • fever or chills
  • cough or hoarseness
  • wheezing or shortness of breath
  • sores in the mouth or on the lips
  • unusual bleeding or bruising
  • swelling of the face
  • red "pinpoint" spots on the skin
  • redness, pain, or swelling at the point where an inject-able anticancer drug is given
  • pain in the side or lower back
  • problems urinating or painful urination
  • dizziness or faintness
  • fast or irregular heartbeat

Other side effects do not need immediate care, but should have medical attention. They are:

  • joint pain
  • skin rash
  • hearing problems or ringing in the ears
  • numbness or tingling in the fingers or toes
  • trouble walking or balance problems
  • swelling of the feet or lower legs
  • unusual tiredness or weakness
  • loss of taste
  • seizures
  • dizziness
  • confusion
  • agitation
  • headache
  • dark urine
  • yellow eyes or skin
  • flushing of the face

In addition, there are other possible side effects that do not need medical attention unless they persist or interfere with normal activities. These include changes in menstrual period, itchy skin, nausea and vomiting, and loss of appetite.

Other rare side effects may occur. Anyone who has unusual symptoms after taking anticancer drugs should contact the physician who prescribed the medication.

Interactions

Anticancer drugs may interact with a number of other medicines. When this happens, the effects of one or both of the drugs may change or the risk of side effects may be greater. The health care provider should be aware of all other prescription or non-prescription (over-the-counter) medicines a patient is taking. The primary care provider should also be told if the patient has been treated with radiation or has taken other anticancer drugs.

Resources

PERIODICALS

"Technique Streamlines Search for Anticancer Drugs." Cancer Weekly April 15, 2003: 62.

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Uretsky, Samuel; Odle, Teresa. "Anticancer Drugs." Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine, 3rd ed.. 2006. Encyclopedia.com. 1 Jul. 2016 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

Uretsky, Samuel; Odle, Teresa. "Anticancer Drugs." Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine, 3rd ed.. 2006. Encyclopedia.com. (July 1, 2016). http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3451600122.html

Uretsky, Samuel; Odle, Teresa. "Anticancer Drugs." Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine, 3rd ed.. 2006. Retrieved July 01, 2016 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3451600122.html