Tanzania

TANZANIA

LOCATION, SIZE, AND EXTENT
TOPOGRAPHY
CLIMATE
FLORA AND FAUNA
ENVIRONMENT
POPULATION
MIGRATION
ETHNIC GROUPS
LANGUAGES
RELIGIONS
TRANSPORTATION
HISTORY
GOVERNMENT
POLITICAL PARTIES
LOCAL GOVERNMENT
JUDICIAL SYSTEM
ARMED FORCES
INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION
ECONOMY
INCOME
LABOR
AGRICULTURE
ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
FISHING
FORESTRY
MINING
ENERGY AND POWER
INDUSTRY
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
DOMESTIC TRADE
FOREIGN TRADE
BALANCE OF PAYMENTS
BANKING AND SECURITIES
INSURANCE
PUBLIC FINANCE
TAXATION
CUSTOMS AND DUTIES
FOREIGN INVESTMENT
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
HEALTH
HOUSING
EDUCATION
LIBRARIES AND MUSEUMS
MEDIA
ORGANIZATIONS
TOURISM, TRAVEL, AND RECREATION
FAMOUS TANZANIANS
DEPENDENCIES
BIBLIOGRAPHY

United Republic of Tanzania
Jamhuri Ya Muungano Wa Tanzania

CAPITAL: Dodoma

FLAG: The flag consists of a black diagonal stripe running from the lower left corner to the upper right corner, flanked by yellow stripes. The diagonal stripes separate two triangular areas: green at the upper left and blue at the lower right.

ANTHEM: The Tanzanian National Anthem is a setting to new words of the widely known hymn Mungu Ibariki Afrika (God Bless Africa).

MONETARY UNIT: The Tanzanian shilling (Sh) of 100 cents is a paper currency. There are coins of 5, 10, 20, and 50 cents and 1, 5, 10, and 20 shillings, and notes of 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, 500, and 1,000 shillings. Sh1 = $0.00089 (or $1 = Sh1,123.2) as of 2005.

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES: The metric system is used.

HOLIDAYS: Zanzibar Revolution Day, 12 January; Chama Cha Mapinduzi Day, 5 February; Union Day, 26 April; International Workers' Day, 1 May; Farmers' Day, 7 July; Independence Day, 9 December; Christmas, 25 December. Movable religious holidays include 'Id al-Fitr, 'Id al-'Adha', Milad an-Nabi, Good Friday, and Easter Monday.

TIME: 3 pm = noon GMT.

LOCATION, SIZE, AND EXTENT

Situated in East Africa just south of the equator, mainland Tanzania lies between the area of the great lakesVictoria, Tanganyika, and Malawi (Niassa)and the Indian Ocean. It contains a total area of 945,087 sq km (364,900 sq mi), including 59,050 sq km (22,799 sq mi) of inland water. Comparatively, the area occupied by Tanzania is slightly larger than twice the size of the state of California. It is bounded on the n by Uganda and Kenya, on the e by the Indian Ocean, on the s by Mozambique and Malawi, on the sw by Zambia, and on the w by Zaire, Burundi, and Rwanda, with a total boundary length of 4,826 km (2,999 mi), of which 1,424 km (885 mi) is coastline. Tanzania claims part of Lake Malawi, although its internationally recognized boundary is the eastern shore.

The section of the United Republic known as Zanzibar comprises the islands of Zanzibar and Pemba and all islets within 19 km (12 mi) of their coasts, as well as uninhabited Latham Island, 58 km (36 mi) south of Zanzibar Island. Zanzibar Island lies 35 km (22 mi) off the coast, and Pemba Island is about 40 km (25 mi) to the ne. The former has an area of 1,657 sq km (640 sq mi), and the latter 984 sq km (380 sq mi).

Tanzania's capital city, Dodoma, is located on the Indian Ocean coast.

TOPOGRAPHY

Except for the islands and a coastal strip varying in width from 16 to 64 km (1040 mi), Tanzania lies at an altitude of over 200 m (660 ft). A plateau averaging 9001,800 m (3,0006,000 ft) in height makes up the greater part of the country. Mountains are grouped in various sections. The Pare range is in the northeast, and the Kipengere Range is in the southwest. Kilimanjaro (5,895 m/19,340 ft), in the north, is the highest mountain in Africa.

On the borders are three large lakes: Victoria, the second-largest freshwater lake in the world, exceeded only by Lake Superior; Tanganyika, second only to Lake Baykal as the deepest in the world; and Lake Malawi. Lakes within Tanzania include Natron, Eyasi, Manyara, and Rukwa.

Tanzania has few permanent rivers. During half the year, the central plateau has no running water, but in the rainy season, flooding presents a problem.

Two-thirds of Zanzibar Island, to the center and the east, consists of low-lying coral country covered by bush and grass plains and is largely uninhabited except for fishing settlements on the east coast. The western side of the island is fertile and has several ridges rising above 60 m (200 ft). Masingini Ridge, at 119 m (390 ft), is the highest point on the island. The west and center of Pemba Island consists of a flat-topped ridge about 9.5 km (6 mi) wide, deeply bisected by streams. Pemba is hilly, but its highest point is only 95 m (311 ft). Apart from the narrow belt of coral country in the east, the island is fertile and densely populated.

CLIMATE

There are four main climatic zones: (1) the coastal area and immediate hinterland, where conditions are tropical, with temperatures averaging about 27°c (81°f), rainfall varying from 100 to 193 cm (40 to 76 in), and high humidity; (2) the central plateau, which is hot and dry, with rainfall from 5076 cm (2030 in), although with considerable daily and seasonal temperature variations; (3) the semitemperate highland areas, where the climate is healthy and bracing; and (4) the high, moist lake regions. There is little seasonal variation in the Lake Victoria area, but the eastern sections average only 75100 cm (3040 in) of rain, while the western parts receive 200230 cm (8090 in). A small area north of Lake Niassa receives 250 cm (100 in) of rain. There are two rainy seasons in the north, from November to December and from March through May. In the south there is one rainy season, from November to March.

The climate on the islands is tropical, but the heat is tempered by sea breezes that are constant throughout the year, except during the rainy seasons. The seasons are well defined. From December to March, when the northeast monsoon blows, it is hot and comparatively dry. The heavy rains fall in April and May, and the lesser in November and December. It is coldest and driest from June to October, during the southwest monsoon.

FLORA AND FAUNA

Common savanna species cover most of the drier inland areasamounting to about one-third of the countrybetween altitudes of 300 and 1,200 m (1,000 and 4,000 ft). Two main types of closed-forest treeslow-level hardwoods and mountain softwoodsare found in high-rainfall areas on the main mountain masses and in parts of the Lake Victoria Basin. Wooded grasslands are widely scattered throughout the country. The drier central areas include bushlands and thickets. Grasslands and heath are common in the highlands, while the coast has mangrove forest. There are over 10,000 species of plants throughout the country.

The 4 million wild mammals include representatives of 316 species and subspecies, notably antelope, zebra, elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, giraffe, and lion. Various types of monkeys are plentiful.

There are over 230 species of birds found in the country, ranging in size from ostrich to warbler. Insect life, consisting of more than 60,000 species, includes injurious species and disease carriers. There are at least 25 species of reptiles and amphibians and 25 poisonous varieties among the 100 species of snakes. Fish are plentiful.

The flora and fauna of Zanzibar and Pemba are varied. Mammals common to both are galagos, fruit-eating and insectivorous bats, genets, mongooses, small shrews, rats, and mice. Zanzibar has the leopard, Syke's monkey, civet, and giant rat. Unique species of tree coney are found on Pemba and Tumbatu Islands. There are also five unique mammalsKirk's colobus (monkey), two elephant shrews, duiker antelope, and squirrel.

ENVIRONMENT

The Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism, the Tanzania National Parks Department, and the Ministry of Lands, Housing, and Urban Development are the government agencies entrusted with environmental responsibilities in Tanzania. One of the nation's major concerns is soil degradation as a result of recent droughts. Also of concern is the drop in water level at Lake Victoria. Some reports estimate that in the period of 19952005, the water level dropped by one meter.

The nation's land is also affected by the related problem of desertification. Tanzania lost 14.4% of its forest and woodland area between 1983 and 1993. Tanzania has 82 cu km of renewable water resources with 89% of annual withdrawals used for farming and 2% for industrial activity. About 92% of urban dwellers and 62% of the people living in rural areas have access to improved water sources. The nation's cities produce about 1.8 million tons of solid waste per year.

According to a 2006 report issued by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), the number of threatened species included 34 types of mammals, 37 species of birds, 5 types of reptiles, 40 species of amphibians, 28 species of fish, 17 types of mollusks, 16 species of other invertebrates, and 239 species of plants. The nation's marine habitats are threatened by damage to its coral reefs caused by the fishing industry's use of dynamite. Threatened species included the Uluguru bush-shrike, green sea turtle, hawksbill turtle, olive ridley turtle, and Zanzibar suni. At least 16 species of fish have become extinct.

POPULATION

The population of Tanzania in 2005 was estimated by the United Nations (UN) at 36,481,000, which placed it at number 33 in population among the 193 nations of the world. In 2005, approximately 3% of the population was over 65 years of age, with another 45% of the population under 15 years of age. There were 99 males for every 100 females in the country. According to the UN, the annual population rate of change for 20052010 was expected to be 2.4%, a rate the government viewed as too high and sought ways to reduce the fertility rate, which stood at more than five births per woman. The projected population for the year 2025 was 52,604,000.

The overall population density was 39 per sq km (100 per sq mi). The most densely populated regions are the well-watered or elevated areas, particularly in the Usambara Mountains around Kilimanjaro and Meru, on the shores of Lake Victoria, in the Southern Highlands, and in the coastal areas around Tanga and Dar es Salaam.

The UN estimated that 32% of the population lived in urban areas in 2005, and that urban areas were growing at an annual rate of 4.24%. The 2002 Tanzania census reported a metropolitan population for Dodoma, the capital, of 1,698,996. Other large cities and their 2002 regional populations include Mwanza, 2,665,956; Dar es Salaam, 2,497,940; Tanga, 1,742,412; Kigoma, 1,240,939; Arusha, 1,221,890; and Zanzibar 1,003,794.

The prevalence of HIV/AIDS has had a significant impact on the population of Tanzania. The UN estimated that 7.8% of adults between the ages of 1549 were living with HIV/AIDS in 2001. The AIDS epidemic causes higher death and infant mortality rates, and lowers life expectancy.

MIGRATION

Out of an estimated Asian population of 100,000 in 1967, almost half, most of them with British passports, had left the country by 1980. Arabs, who were the dominant group on Zanzibar before the 1964 revolution, despite forming less than 20% of the population, fled after the event to the mainland or the Middle East. There is some emigration of laborers seeking work in neighboring countries, but Tanzanians who leave the country without authorization are subject to prosecution on return. During the clove harvest, labor moves from the towns to the clove plantations, from Zanzibar to Pemba, and from the mainland territories to Pemba. As a result of migration from rural areas to the cities, the urban population is estimated to be growing by 6.5% per year. Urban authorities are empowered to return the unemployed to their villages.

In October 1993, around 250,000 Burundian refugees fled to Tanzania to escape from a military coup in Burundi. Most of these refugees returned within three months. Following the genocide in Rwanda, 500,000 Rwandan refugees arrived in April 1994. In 1996, 220,000 Rwandan refugees in Burundi fled to Tanzania to escape from the fighting in northern Burundi; they were allowed to enter based on humanitarian grounds. By December 1995, around 500,000 were repatriated following an agreement between Tanzania, Rwanda, and the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). In 1995, 18,000 Mozambicans entered Tanzania. Since 1997, 33,000 Zaireans and 59,000 Burundians have entered Tanzania. The total number of migrants living in Tanzania in 2000 was 893,000. As of 2004, there were 602,088 refugees in Tanzania, including some 443,000 from Burundi, and 153,000 from DROC. There were also 166 asylum seekers and 2 returned refugees. In 2004, Tanzania remained the fourth-largest asylum country.

In 2005, the net migration rate was estimated as -3.11 per 1,000 population. The government viewed the migration levels as satisfactory.

ETHNIC GROUPS

Mainland-native Africans constitute 99% of the total population. About 130 tribes have been categorized into 5 ethnic groups distinguishable by their physical characteristics and languages. Approximately 95% of Tanzanians may be roughly classified as Bantu, a comparatively recent blend mainly of Hamitic and Negroid stocks. Tribes range in membership from only a few thousand to the Sukuma tribe, which numbers more than two million. Other major tribes include the Nyamwezi, Makonde, Haya, and Chagga. The Luo, east of Lake Victoria, are the only people of Nilotic origin; the Masai of the northern highlands are Nilo-Hamites. A very small number of Bushmen-like people are scattered throughout northern Tanzania, where small tribes of Cushitic origin also live. The inhabitants of Zanzibar and Pemba are chiefly descendants of mainland Africans or are of mixed African and Arab extraction. The remaining 1% of the populace is made up of non-Africans, including Arabs, Asians, and Europeans.

LANGUAGES

Most Tanzanians speak variations of Bantu languages and dialects. Various languages also have Hamitic or Nilotic origins. Swahili (or Kiswahili) is the official language, as well as the lingua franca, and is understood in most parts of the country, although its usefulness declines toward the west. English, also an official language, is the primary language of commerce, administration, and higher education. Kiunguja, a form of Swahili, and Arabic are widely spoken in Zanzibar. The first language of most people is one of the local languages.

RELIGIONS

Since religious demography has been removed from government censuses as of 1967, reliable statistics on religious affiliation are diffi cult to obtain. Sociologists and religious leaders estimate that between 3040% of the total population are Christian and that about an equal percentage are Muslim. The Christian churches represented include Roman Catholic, Pentecostal, Protestant, Seventh-Day Adventist, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, and Jehovah's Witnesses. A majority of the Muslims are Sunni, while others belong to one of several Shia groups. On the island of Zanzibar, about 99% of the inhabitants are Muslim.

Though the constitution forbids religious discrimination, many Muslims believe that they are disadvantaged with less representation in civil service, government, and other public institutions. A number of fundamental Muslims argue that the government is attempting to institute a Christian state. A 2001 Mufti Law allows the president of Zanzibar to appoint a mufti (Islamic leader) as a Zanzibar government official who settles religious disputes involving Muslims and generally monitors Muslim activities on the island. On the mainland, the National Muslim Council of Tanzania (BAKWATA) is a nongovernmental organization that has elected their own mufti. Several Muslims object to the government support shown for the appointment or elections of muftis, believing that it will only lead to government control of Islamic religious affairs. Fundamental Muslim groups on Zanzibar have initiated highly confrontational, anti-Christian proselytizing campaigns, and Christian fundamentalists have responded by calling Muslims "servants of Satan." Tension also exists between fundamental and moderate Muslim groups, as the fundamentalists criticize secular Muslims who drink alcohol and marry Christian women. Certain Christian and Muslim holidays are celebrated as national holidays.

TRANSPORTATION

As of 2004, the Tanzanian Railways Corporation operated domestic railway services on 3,690 km (2,218 mi) of track, all of it narrow gauge. The Central Line extends 1,255 km (780 mi) from Dar es Salaam to Kigoma; its main branch lines are Tabora to Mwanza (381 km/237 mi) and Kaliua to Mpanda (211 km/131 mi). The Northern Line, extending from Dar es Salaam and Tanga to Moshi and Arusha, is linked to the railway systems of Kenya and Uganda. The 1,857-km (1,154-mi) Tazara railway, operated by the Tanzania-Zambia Railway Authority, links Dar es Salaam in Tanzania with Kpiri Mposhi in Zambia; 962 km (598 mi) of the line are in Tanzania. The Tazara railway is used mainly to transport goods for Zambia and Malawi. In 2002, Tanzania had 85,000 km (52,819 mi) of roads, 4,250 km (2641 mi) of which were paved. In 2003, there were 20,100 passenger cars and 50,200 commercial vehicles.

Tanzania has a small national merchant shipping line of three freighters and one tanker. The principal ports on the mainland are Dar es Salaam, Mtwara, Tanga, and Lindi, all of which are managed by the Tanzanian Harbours Authority. Tanzanian ports handle cargo for landlocked Zambia, Zaire, Uganda, Rwanda, and Burundi. Freight and passenger vessels serve Mwanza and other Lake Victoria ports, among them Bukoba and Musoma. A joint Burundian-Tanzanian shipping company operates on Lake Tanganyika, and the Tanzanian Railways Corporation operates vessels on lakes Tanganyika, Victoria, and Niassa. Tanzania's rivers are not navigable. In 2005, Tanzania's merchant fleet comprised 11 ships of 1,000 GRT or more, totaling 25,481 GRT.

Airports in 2004 totaled an estimated 123, only 11 of which had paved runways as of 2005. Most internal air services are operated by Air Tanzania, which also flies internationally. Charter companies operate flights to government-maintained airports, landing fields, and privately owned airstrips. Foreign airlines provide service from international airports at Dar es Salaam and in the vicinity of Mt. Kilimanjaro (opened in 1971). There is also an international airport on Zanzibar, which maintains its own airline, Zanair. In 2003, scheduled airline traffic carried about 150,000 passengers.

HISTORY

Paleontologists Louis and Mary Leakey, working at Olduvai Gorge and elsewhere in northern Tanzania, uncovered fossil evidence that humanlike creatures inhabited the area at least as early as 3.7 million years ago. Excavations of Stone Age sites have revealed that the hunter-gatherers of the late Stone Age, known as Bushmen, were gradually displaced by successive waves of Cushitic, Bantu, and Nilotic peoples. By the 1st millennium ad, the Iron Age Urewe culture had developed along the western shore of Lake Victoria.

Arabs from the Persian Gulf area were engaged in trade along the Indian Ocean coast by the 9th century ad and by the 12th century had established trading posts on the mainland and the offshore islands. Intermarriage between the Arabs and coastal Bantu-speaking peoples resulted in the creation of the Swahili people and language. (Swahili literally means "of the coast.")

The first contacts of European nations with the East African coast were incidental to their quest for spices. In 1498, Vasco da Gama rounded the Cape of Good Hope, and thereafter the Portuguese established trading and supply posts on the East African coast for their ships on the way to India. Eventually, the Portuguese lost control of the sea routes, and in 1698, the Ya'aruba imam of the Ibahdi Arabs of Oman, Sa'if bin Sultan, expelled the Portuguese from every position that they held north of Mozambique. The Ibahdis of Oman long remained in at least nominal control of East Africa, and there was a lucrative trade in slaves and ivory.

Sayyid Sa'id bin Sultan (the ruler of Oman during 180656), above all others, must be regarded as the founder of modern Zanzibar. Sa'id first visited Zanzibar in 1828, and in 1840, he made the island his capital. A believer in free trade, he encouraged foreign merchants, including Indians, broke up Arab monopolies, and made commercial treaties with the United States and the United Kingdom. Zanzibar is indebted to him most for his establishment of the clove tree. By the time he died in 1856, he had established a large, loosely held empire that included Oman, Zanzibar, and the East African coast inland to the Great Lakes and the Congo. Zanzibar produced three-quarters of the world's clove supply on plantations worked by slaves from the mainland. British pressure forced the closing of the slave trade in 1876, although slavery itself was not abolished until 1897.

The rise of Zanzibar as a commercial center was largely due to its trading links to the interior. Many of the caravan routes that stretched across East Africa were pioneered by African mainland societies. For example, the Yao living around Lake Malawi supplied the southern Tanzania trading town of Kilwa with slaves and ivory. African societies that gained control over the trade routes enhanced their power and wealth. In northeast Tanzania, a powerful trading and military state emerged in the 1860s in Urambo. Its leader, Mirambo was an excellent military and commercial strategist. He challenged the position of coastal traders in the area as well as the leading states that were closely aligned to Zanzibar.

The first Europeans to explore the interior were the British Sir Richard Francis Burton and John Hanning Speke, who crossed the country in 1857 to search for the source of the Nile, which Speke discovered in 1858. In 1866, Sultan Majid of Zanzibar began building the coastal town of Dar es Salaam ("Haven of Peace"). In 1871, Scottish missionary and explorer David Livingstone had reached Ujiji when his whereabouts became unknown to the outside world; the Anglo-American explorer Henry Morton Stanley, commissioned by a US newspaper, located him there later in that year. Tanganyika (the name for the mainland prior to the 1964 union with Zanzibar) came under German influence in 188485, when Karl Peters concluded treaties with chiefs of the interior in order to secure a charter for his German East Africa Company.

In 1890, two treaties between Germany and Great Britain were signed: the first partitioned the territories on the mainland hitherto controlled by the sultan of Zanzibar; the second officially recognized Anglo-German spheres of influence, excluded Germany from the Upper Nile, and established a British protectorate over Zanzibar and Pemba. Tanganyika and Ruanda-Urundi (now Rwanda and Burundi) became recognized as German East Africa in 1891. As they occupied the interior, the German-led troops put down African opposition and uprisings. Intense military opposition to the European imperialism was led by Mirambo of the Nyamwezi in northwest Tanzania, by Mkwawa of the Hehe in southern highlands and by Meli of the Chagga around Kilimanjaro. However, the most bloody and intense opposition to German rule was the Maji-Maji war from 19051907. This war was inspired by Kinjekitile, a charismatic spiritual leader from southern Tanzania, succeeded in uniting a large number of African societies to fight the Germans. People who took Kinjekitile's medicine were told that the "white man's' bullets" could not harm them. After initial battlefield successes, the Germans initiated a scorched earth policy that eventually starved southern Tanzania into submission. During World War I, a small German force led by Gen. Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck fought a long defensive guerrilla war against British armies, and much of Tanganyika was laid waste.

Moving Toward Independence

Beginning in 1920, the United Kingdom administered Tanganyika as a mandate of the League of Nations. A customs union was established with Kenya and Uganda, the cultivation of export crops was encouraged, and a system of indirect rule was instituted. A Legislative Council for Tanganyika was created in 1926, but not until 1945 were seats reserved for Africans. In 1946, Tanganyika became a UN trust territory. After 1954, the Tanganyika African National Union (TANU) petitioned the UN Trusteeship Council to put pressure on the UK administration to establish a timetable for independence. TANU-supported candidates won the elections of 195860 for the Legislative Council, and Julius Nyerere became chief minister in September 1960. On 9 December 1961, Tanganyika became an independent nation. On 9 December 1962, it was established as a republic, headed by Nyerere as president.

In Zanzibar, a Legislative Council with an elected element had been established in 1957. On 24 June 1963, a deeply divided Zanzibar attained internal self-government; it became completely independent on 10 December 1963 under the (ZNP) Zanzibar Nationalist Party. On 12 January 1964, however, the ZNP government was overthrown by African nationalists allowing ZNP's bitter rivals the ASP (Afro-Shirazi Party) to take power. The sultan, who had fled, was deposed, and Abeid Karume was installed as president. On 26 April 1964, Tanganyika merged with Zanzibar and became the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, with Nyerere as president; in October, the name was changed to Tanzania. Karume, still president of Zanzibar and a vice president of Tanzania, was assassinated on 7 April 1972; his successor as head of the Zanzibar Revolutionary Council was Aboud Jumbe.

Under Nyerere, Tanzania became steadily more socialist. In international affairs, Tanzania became one of the strongest supporters of majority rule in southern Africa, backing liberation movements in Mozambique, Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) and South Africa. Growing differences between the East African Community's three members (Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda) led to the breakup in 1977 of the 10-year-old group. Tanzania's border with Kenya remained closed until 1983. On 30 October 1978, Ugandan forces invaded Tanzania; Nyerere retaliated by sending 20,000 Tanzanian troops into Uganda. Ugandan President Idi Amin's forces were routed in April 1979, and former president Milton Obote, who had been living in exile in Tanzania, was returned to power. In 1982, Tanzanian troops helped put down an army mutiny in the Seychelles.

In 1980, Nyerere was reelected without opposition to his fifth and last term as president. During the early 1980s, Tanzania was plagued by poor economic performance, and there was a small, unsuccessful army mutiny against Nyerere in January 1983. There was also rising dissatisfaction in Zanzibar over the islands' political ties to the mainland; an attempt to overthrow Jumbe in June 1980 failed. In 1984, Jumbe and his colleagues, including his Chief Minister Seif Shariff Hamad, attempted to push for more autonomy for Zanzibar. As a result, Aboud Jumbe was pressured by the union government to resign his posts as vice president of Tanzania and president of Zanzibar in January 1984. His Chief Minister, Seif Shariff Hamad was detained. Ali Hassan Mwinyi, Jumbe's successor, was elected president of Zanzibar in April 1984. He was succeeded by Idris Abdul Wakil in October 1985. Mwinyi succeeded Nyerere as president of Tanzania in November 1985, following presidential and parliamentary elections, and was reelected in 1990. Mwinyi was identified with those in the ruling party, Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM), seeking greater political and economic liberalization, and in 1990 Nyerere resigned as chairman of the CCM. On 14 October 1999 Julius Nyerere died of leukemia. Idris Wakil, died shortly after on 15 March 2000.

Liberalization was not easy to attain. Except for religion, the CCM controlled almost all areas of social affairs. Party cells at work and in the community shadowed Tanzanians constantly. In February 1992, at an extraordinary national conference of CCM, delegates voted unanimously to introduce a multiparty system. On 17 June 1992, Mwinyi signed into law constitutional amendments that allowed new parties (with certain exceptions) to participate in elections. The first multiparty elections since the reinstitution of multiparty politics were local government elections held in 1994. In the elections the ruling party CCM soundly defeated the opposition parties. Despite strong government and CCM support for liberalization, the state is at least rhetorically committed to socialism as the concept of "socialism and self-reliance" is retained in article nine of the union constitution.

Rifts between the mainland (Tanganyika) and Zanzibar grew in the 1990s, often linked to the ongoing ChristianMuslim division. In December 1992, in violation of the constitution, the government in heavily Muslim Zanzibar covertly joined the Organization of Islamic Countries (OIC). In August 1993, parliament debated a motion calling for constitutional revisions to create a separate government for Tanganyika, to parallel the Zanzibar government. At that point, Zanzibar agreed to withdraw from the OIC and to allow Tanzanians from the mainland to visit without passports.

In April 1993, fundamentalist Muslims were arrested for attacking owners of pork butcheries in Dar es Salaam. Demonstrations at their trials led to more arrests and a government ban on the Council for the Propagation of the Koran. Around the same time the government also arrested an evangelist pastor named Christopher Mtikila who had formed a political party not recognized by the government. Mtikila, a populist preacher, accused the government of selling the country off to Arabs and Zanzibaris and his actions helped to heighten ChristianMuslim tensions. Mwinyi shuffled his cabinet several times in 1993 to balance Christian and Muslim interests. Later under the Mkapa regime, religious tensions became apparent again when Muslims protested over the arrest of a religious leader from the Mwembechai Mosque in Dar es Salaam on the grounds that he was threatening peace and stability through his provocative sermons. In a demonstration that followed the arrest, two people were shot dead by the police and 135 demonstrators were arrested.

From the constitutional amendment of 1992 sprang the elections of October 1995, the first multiparty elections in Tanzania since the 1960s. However, the CCM commitment to a fair and open election was questioned. CCM candidate Benjamin Mkapa was elected union president in a vote that opposition parties and international observers considered flawed. On Zanzibar, international observers and the opposition Civic United Front (CUF) believed that CCM intimidation and vote rigging influenced the election results for the islands' government to favor CCM. The CUF claimed victory, only to have the CCM reject the results. The CCM-dominated electoral commission then declared CCM candidate Salmin Amour the winner of the presidential race and gave the CCM the majority of seats in Zanzibar's House of Representatives. CUF boycotted sessions of the Zanzibar House and refused to recognize the Amour government until a 1999 Commonwealth-brokered agreement was reached between the two rival parties. Despite the agreement, political tensions on the islands were high as the October 2000 elections approached.

Among the major problems inherited by Mkapa was the fate of the 700,000 refugees living in camps near the northern and western borders. Tanzania had taken in some 500,000 Rwandan refugees who fled the violence in their country since 1980. In one day at the height of the 1994 genocide in Rwanda, 200,000 refugees crossed over the border. Additionally, the government took in 200,000 refugees from Burundi. The strain on the country's resources, coupled with incursions into Tanzania by Tutsi dominated Burundi government forces chasing Hutu rebels, led the government to close its borders in 1995. In February 1997, Tanzania implemented its much-criticized plan to repatriate or expel its refugee population. In 1998 Tanzania severed its relations with Burundi and refused to recognize the military government of Maj. Pierre Buyoya. In response, Burundi closed its embassy in Dar es Salaam. Repatriation of Rwandan refugees was nearly completed by end of 2002.

On 7 August 1998, simultaneous bombings of the US embassies in Nairobi and Dar es Salaamclaiming 12 Tanzanian liveswere attributed to Osama bin Laden's al-Quaeda organization. Combined investigations and close cooperation between the Tanzanian and US governments facilitated the capture of a number of the terrorists. However, in early 2003 Western governments issued warnings to their citizens of possible terrorist threats on Zanzibar, which had a devastating impact on the economy with some hotel bookings down by 50%.

In October 2000, Tanzanians went to the polls reelecting Benjamin Mkapa and giving the ruling CCM party 244 of 272 seats in the parliament. The CUF disputed the results in Zanzibar, and in January 2001 after the government declared a protest march illegal, security forces shot and killed approximately 30 persons, seriously injured 300, and displaced some 2,000 more. On 26 February 2001, in what appeared to be a revenge murder, the CCM secretary general for Pemba was found killed with machete slashes to his skull and body. Following year-long talks between the CCM and CUF, a constitutional amendment act was passed by the Zanzibari parliament on Pemba island towards the implementation of a reconciliation agreement signed by the two parties in October 2001. The passage of the act meant a review of the judiciary and Zanzibar Electoral Commission (ZEC), as well as the introduction of a director of public prosecution.

Presidential and parliamentary elections were held on 14 December 2005. Originally scheduled for 30 October, the elections were postponed due to the death of a vice presidential candidate. These polls were the third since the country returned to multiparty rule in 1992. They were also significant in that the incumbent President Benjamin Mkapa, who has served two consecutive terms, stepped down in accordance with the constitution. Jakaya Kikwete was elected president winning 80.3% of the votes. The next presidential election was scheduled for 2010.

Elections for the presidency of Zanzibar and its House of Representatives took place on 30 October 2005, as scheduled. Amani Abeid Karume of CCM won 53.18% of the votes and Seif Sharif Hamad of CUF won 46.07% of the votes in the presidential election. Voter turnout was high at 90.8% of registered voters. Immediately after the results were announced, riots broke out and a number of people were beaten and shot by the police. CUF protested the results claiming that Karume had won the presidency in Zanzibar through rigging. In the Zanzibar House of Representatives, CCM won 30 of the 50 seats and CUF took 19, with one seat being invalidated.

As of mid-2005, Tanzania faced a number of issues and challenges. According to the UNDP human development report for 2005, Tanzania ranked 164 out of 173 countries making it one of the world's poorest nations. The HIV adult prevalence rate was 11% with over two million people infected with the virus. The US State Department report on democracy and human rights observed that while Tanzania had improved its respect for human rights in recent years, the government's overall record remained poor. The report found that police were more disciplined in recent years, but members of the police and security forces committed unlawful killings and mistreated suspected criminals. The most serious violations of human rights resulted from election-related violence in Zanzibar in 2001 and in October 2005.

GOVERNMENT

A new constitution, replacing the 1965 interim document, went into effect April 1977 and was substantially amended in October 1984 and in 1992. It has been amended eight times.

The president, who is both chief of state and head of government, can be elected for no more than two five-year terms by universal adult suffrage. Before the constitutional amendments in 1992, the sole legal party Chama cha Mapinduzi (CCM) nominated the president. Two vice presidents, whom he appointed, assisted him: one was the prime minister and the other was the president of Zanzibar. As of 1995, the president is assisted by a vice president, prime minister, and cabinet. If the president of Tanzania is from Zanzibar, the vice president must be from the mainland and vice-versa.

As of 1995, the 274-seat unicameral national assembly consists of 232 members elected by universal adult suffrage for five-year terms, 36, or 15%, of the seats reserved for women nominated by their parties (parties nominate the women members of parliament in proportion to the number of seats they control), and 5 members from the Zanzibar House of Representatives and the attorney general. Presidential and legislative elections are held concurrently, and in each legislative constituency. All candidates in competing in elections must belong to political parties. The prime minister, who is chosen from the assembly members, heads the assembly. If the president withholds his assent from a bill passed by the assembly, it does not become a law unless the assembly passes it again by a two-thirds majority. The president may dissolve the assembly and call for new presidential and legislative elections if he refuses to assent to a law passed by such a majority within 32 days of its passage.

The Revolutionary Council of Zanzibar, which held power on the islands since 1964, adopted a separate constitution in October 1979, which it replaced in January 1984. The new constitution provides for a popularly elected president and a 75-member Council of Representatives, 50 of whom are popularly elected and 25 appointed. The government of Zanzibar has exclusive jurisdiction over internal matters, including immigration, finances, and economic policy. Since the 1990s, a trend toward greater autonomy for Zanzibar has been the basis of political tension with the mainland.

The Articles of Union and Acts of Union of 1964 provided for two governments: the union government, which also handled mainland issues, and the Zanzibar government, which dealt with nonunion matters pertaining to Zanzibar. The Tanganyikan constitution of 1962 was amended to accommodate the two government arrangement, which has remained in place ever since. However, the two-government system has been criticized as favoring Zanzibar because there is no separate government for the mainland. Moreover, Zanzibar's representation in parliament is considered to be disproportionate to its small population. In August 1993, following Zanzibar's attempt to join the OIC in violation of the constitution, the National Assembly adopted a resolution that provided for the possibility of setting up a mainland or Tanganyikan government to parallel that of Zanzibar. The issue of a federated system with three governments has remained a bone of contention between CCM and the opposition parties.

Renegotiation of the Union pact was the key issue of the 1995 elections, the first contested elections on Tanzania in 20 years. Although the former ruling party emerged from those elections with the Zanzibar presidency and a majority in the House of Representatives, the secessionist movement remained strong on the islands. The Zanzibar government established its own department of revenue and foreign affairs.

In February 2000 the Zanzibar CCM and the mainland CCM factions clashed over a constitutional amendment that would have allowed Zanzibar's President Salmin Amour to seek a third term. CCM's National Executive Committee postponed consideration of the issue until after the 2000 elections, effectively blocking Amour's bid. On 29 October 2000, Zanzibar elected Amani Abeid Karume president, and Benjamin Mkapa was returned president of the Tanzanian republic. In 2005 Jakaya Kikwete was elected president with 80.3% of the votes. In controversial Zanzibar elections held in October 2005, Karume won 53.18% of the votes to retain the Zanzibar presidency.

POLITICAL PARTIES

At independence in 1961, Tanganyika (Tanzania Mainland) had a multiparty political system. The Tanganyika African National Union (TANU), established in 1954, was the overwhelmingly dominant political party in preindependence Tanganyika. Other political parties of this era included the United Tanganyika Party, the African National Congress, and the All Muslim National Unity of Tanganyika. In Zanzibar, there were three important political parties prior to independence. These were the ZNP (Zanzibar Nationalist Party, ASP (Afro-Shirazi Party), and ZPPP (Zanzibar and Pemba Peoples's Party). On 5 February 1977, ASP the ruling party of Zanzibar and TANU merged into the Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM) or Revolutionary Party. It became the sole legal political party in Tanzania. All candidates had to be approved by the CCM and were permitted to campaign only on the CCM platform. Elections within the single party framework were competitive, however. In the balloting on 13 and 27 October 1985, 328 candidates competed for 169 elective seats in the National Assembly. In 1987, former president Julius K. Nyerere was reelected chairman of the CCM. He stepped down in 1990, to be succeeded by Ali Hassam Mwinyi.

The CCM officially favors nonracism and African socialism. The basic aims, laid down in Nyerere's Arusha Declaration of 1967, are social equality, self-reliance, economic cooperation with other African states, ujamaa (familyhood), and the development of forms of economic activity, particularly in rural areas, based on collective efforts. However, since the late 1980s, CCM has slowly transformed itself into a pro-market, pro-business party. The party is divided into locally organized branches, which are grouped into districts, which in turn are grouped into regions. The 172-member National Executive Committee is the principal policymaking and directing body of the CCM. A central committee of 18 members is elected at periodic party congresses.

Although Tanzania amended its constitution in 1992 to become a multiparty state, the CCM still controls government. Other parties have tried to organize, and have complained of harassment by government and CCM activists. Before taking part in elections, the new parties undergo a six-month probation during which they can recruit and organize. Some 20 opposition groups had registered in the first four months of their legality. However, parties representing regional, racial, ethnic, or religious groups are explicitly prohibited.

Multiparty elections were held in Zanzibar on 25 October 1995 and union-wide on 29 October 1995. International observers and opposition parties accused the CCM of voter fraud and intimidation of opposition candidates in Zanzibar. While Civic United Front (CUF) claimed victory, on 26 October, the election commission declared CCM presidential candidate Salmin Amour the winner by 1,565 votes over the CUF's Seif Shariff Hamad. The CCM also won 26 of the 50 seats in the House of Representatives. Citing fraud in the election, the CUF boycotted the House and refused to recognize the Amour government. CCMCUF tension in Zanzibar increased dramatically after the government arrested eighteen CUF members and charged them with treason, an offence punishable by death. Four of those charged with treason were CUF members of the Zanzibar House of Representatives. The Commonwealth Secretary General, Chief Emeka Anyaoku, tried to reconcile the two parties. An agreement was reached between the two parties in 1999 but tensions on the island remained high as CUF charged CCM with not living up to the agreement. As the 2000 elections approached, the treason suspects were still behind bars and clamoring to run for office from prison.

The Union election held on 29 October 1995 was so disorganized that it was cancelled in Dar es Salaam and held again on 19 November. In the presidential election, CCM candidate Benjamin Mkapa won with 61.8% of the vote. Former Deputy Prime Minister Augustino Mrema of the National Convention for Constitutional Reform received 27.7%; Ibrahim Lipumba of the Civic United Front won 6.4%, and John Cheyo of the United Democratic Party captured 3.97%. Parliamentary election results saw the CCM win 59.2% of the vote and 186 seats; NCCR, 21.83% and 16 seats; CUF, 5% and 24 seats; Chadema, 6.2% and 3 seats, and UDP, 3.3% and 3 seats.

As of the October 2000 elections there were 12 permanently registered opposition parties: Civic United Front/Chama Cha Wananchi (CUF), the National Convention for Constitutional Reform (NCCR-Mageuzi), the Union for Multiparty Democracy (UMD), Chama cha Demokrasia na Maendeleo (CHADEMA), the National League for Democracy (NLD), the Tanzania Peoples Party (TPP), the Tanzania Democratic Alliance (TADEA), the National Redemption Alliance (NRA), the Popular National Party (PONA), the United Peoples Democratic Party (UPDP), the United Democratic Party (UDP), and the Tanzania Labor Party (TLP).

In the presidential elections on 29 October 2000, CCM candidate Benjamin William Mkapa was reelected president with 71.7% of the vote, defeating CUF candidate Ibrahim Haruna Lipumba who garnered 16.3%. TLP candidate Augustine Lyatonga Mreme managed to obtain 7.8%, and John Momose Cheyo of the UDP 4.2%. In the National Assembly, the CCM won 244 of 272 seats to 16 for the CUF, 4 for CHADEMA, 3 for TLP, and 2 for UDP. In the Zanzibar House of Representatives the CCM won 34 seats to 16 for CUF. However, on Zanzibar the elections and postelections period were marred by violent civil unrest.

The results of the 2005 National Assembly election were as follows: CMM, 206 seats; CUF, 19 seats; CHADEMA, 5 seats; other, 2 seats; 37 women were appointed by the president, and Zanzibar representatives, 5 seats. The results of the 2005 Zanzibar House of Representatives election were as follows: CCM, 30 seats; CUF, 19 seats; and 1 seat was nullified with a rerun scheduled.

In the Union elections scheduled for December 2005, ten political parties fielded candidates for the presidency of Tanzania. Benjamin Mkapa of CCM stepped down as mandated by the constitution. CCM fielded Jakaya Kikwete who won the presidency with 80.3% of the votes, while Sauti ya Umma (SAU) was represented by Henry Kyara and CUF supported Ihrahim Lipumba who won 11.7% of the votes. Other presidential candidates included Emmanuel Makaidi of National League for Democracy (NLD); Freeman Mbowe of Chama cha Demokrasia na Maendeleo (CHADEMA) (won 5.9% of the votes); Augustine Mrema of Tanzania Labour Party (TLP); Christopher Mtikila of Democratic Party (DP); Sengondo Mvungi of National Convention for Construction and Reform-Mageuzi (NCCR-Mageuzi) also supported by the Forum for the Restoration of Democracy (FORD), National Reconstruction Alliance (NRA), Union for Multiparty Democracy (UMD), and United People's Democratic Party (UPDP); Anna Senkoro of Progressive Party of Tanzania-Maendeleo (PPT-Maendeleo); and Leonard Shayo of Demokrasia Makini (MAKINI). The next general elections were to be held December 2010.

LOCAL GOVERNMENT

Mainland Tanzania is divided into 20 administrative regions, which are subdivided into 86 districts. Zanzibar and Pemba are divided into five regions. Regional commissioners are appointed by the central government, as are district commissioners and development directors for the districts.

The units of local government are district development councils. Each district development council includes elected members, but these bodies are only advisory. In Zanzibar, revolutionary committees are responsible for regional administration.

JUDICIAL SYSTEM

Mainland Tanzanian law is a combination of British, East African customary law, and Islamic law. Local courts are presided over by appointed magistrates. They have limited jurisdiction, and there is a right of appeal to district courts, headed by either resident or district magistrates. Appeal can be made to the High Court, which consists of a chief justice and 17 judges appointed by the president. It has both civil and criminal jurisdiction over all persons and all matters. Appeals from the High Court can be made to the five-member Court of Appeal. Judges are appointed to the Court of Appeal and the High Court by the president on the advice of the chief justice and to courts at lower levels by the chief justice.

In 1985, the Zanzibar courts were made parallel to those of the mainland. Islamic courts handle some civil matters. Cases concerning the Zanzibar constitution are heard only in Zanzibar courts. All other cases may be appealed to the Court of Appeal of the Republic.

Although declared independent by the constitution, the judiciary is subject to executive branch influence and is criticized as inefficient and corrupt. Questions have been raised as to the availability of a fair trial in politically charged cases.

ARMED FORCES

Tanzania's armed forces totaled 27,000 active personnel in 2005, with reserves numbering 80,000. The Army had 23,000 personnel in 5 infantry brigades, 1 tank brigade, 6 artillery battalions, 2 mortar battalions, 2 antitank battalions, 2 air defense battalions, and 1 engineering regiment. Equipment included 45 main battle tanks, 55 light tanks and 378 artillery pieces. The Navy had an estimated 1,000 personnel, whose major units consisted of six patrol/coastal vessels and two amphibious landing craft. The Air Defense Command numbered an estimated 3,000, operating 19 combat capable aircraft, including 9 fighters and 10 fighter ground attack aircraft. Police field forces, which included naval and air units, numbered 1,400. In 2004 (the latest year for which data was available), the defense budget totaled $362 million.

INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

Tanganyika was admitted to United Nations membership on 14 December 1961, and Zanzibar on 16 December 1963; following their union into what was eventually called Tanzania, the two regions retained a single membership. Tanzania is a member of ECA and several nonregional specialized agencies, such as the FAO, ILO, the World Bank, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNCTAD, and the WHO. It is also a member of the African Development Bank, the East African Development Bank, the Commonwealth of Nations, the ACP Group, G-6, G-77, the WTO, the Southern African Development Community (SADC), and the African Union. Along with Rwanda, Burundi, and Uganda, it belongs to the Kagera Basin Organization. Julius Nyerere, Tanzania's first president, was one of the founding members of the Nonaligned Movement. Tanzania, Uganda, and Kenya signed an East African Cooperation Treaty in September 1999. A second treaty establishing a Customs Union was signed in March 2004.

In environmental cooperation, Tanzania is part of the Basel Convention, the Convention on Biological Diversity, CITES, the Kyoto Protocol, the Montréal Protocol, and the UN Conventions on the Law of the Sea, Climate Change, and Desertification.

ECONOMY

Tanzania has an agricultural economy whose chief commercial crops are sisal, coffee, cotton, tea, tobacco, pyrethrum, spices, and cashew nuts. Agriculture accounts for 48% of GDP, provides 85% of exports, and employs 80% of the workforce. The most important minerals are gold and diamonds. Industry is mainly concerned with the processing of agricultural materials for export and local consumption. Gas production in the Rufiji Delta was scheduled for 2002. The multimillion dollar Songosongo gas pipeline project was being developed in 2003.

After 25 years of socialist experimentation achieved important advances in education and health, poor economic performance led the government, in 1986, to adopt market-style reforms in conjunction with the IMF structural adjustment program. Since then, significant progress has been made in revitalizing the economy and donors have pledged additional funds to rehabilitate Tanzania's deteriorated economic infrastructure. The high inflation rate dropped to 5% in 2001 and 4.1% in 2004. Growth averaged 4.2% in 19962000, and picked up steadily to 6.2% in 2002, before slightly dropping in 2003 to an estimated 5.7% because of drought, and then recovering to 6.7% in 2004.

In 2001, bilateral donor countries pledged $1 billion in aid for the country's reform programs, including education. Tanzania in 2003 was receiving $3 billion over time in debt relief under the IMF/World Bank Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) initiative, and the net present value of Tanzania's external debt was being reduced by 54%. The economy was improving, with the mining, tourism, agriculture, construction, telecommunications, and utilities sectors all showing potential for growth. The government had sold off state-owned enterprises, was welcoming foreign investment, and had implemented strict fiscal and monetary policies. Nonetheless, Tanzania's macroeconomic progress had not translated into better lives for its rural poor.

INCOME

The US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) reports that in 2005 Tanzania's gross domestic product (GDP) was estimated at $26.6 billion. The CIA defines GDP as the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year and computed on the basis of purchasing power parity (PPP) rather than value as measured on the basis of the rate of exchange based on current dollars. The per capita GDP was estimated at $700. The annual growth rate of GDP was estimated at 6.1%. The average inflation rate in 2005 was 4.1%. It was estimated that agriculture accounted for 43.2% of GDP, industry 17.2%, and services 39.6%.

According to the World Bank, in 2003 remittances from citizens working abroad totaled $7 million or about $0 per capita and accounted for approximately 0.1% of GDP. Foreign aid receipts amounted to $1,669 million or about $47 per capita and accounted for approximately 16.3% of the gross national income (GNI).

The World Bank reports that in 2003 household consumption in Tanzania totaled $7.94 billion or about $221 per capita based on a GDP of $10.3 billion, measured in current dollars rather than PPP. Household consumption includes expenditures of individuals, households, and nongovernmental organizations on goods and services, excluding purchases of dwellings. It was estimated that for the period 1990 to 2003 household consumption grew at an average annual rate of 1.8%. In 2001 it was estimated that approximately 67% of household consumption was spent on food, 5% on fuel, 4% on health care, and 12% on education. It was estimated that in 2002 about 36% of the population had incomes below the poverty line.

LABOR

Over 80% of Tanzania's working population was estimated to be engaged in agriculture in 2002, with the industrial and services sectors accounting for the remaining workforce. The labor force was estimated at 19.22 million in 2005. The was no data available on unemployment in Tanzania.

In 1964, by legislation of the National Assembly, the existing 13 trade unions were dissolved and amalgamated into a single national institution, the National Union of Tanzanian Workers. This was reorganized in 1978 to take in Zanzibar trade union activity as the Organization of Tanzania Trade Unions (OTTU), which still is the only labor union organization. The OTTU was renamed the Tanzania Federation of Trade Unions (TFTU) in 1995. As of 2002, only approximately 57% of the wage-earning labor force was organized. Strikes are permitted after a lengthy and complicated arbitration procedure which delays a resolution for months. Collective bargaining does not regularly occur, and public sector employee wages and benefits are set by the government.

With the permission of a parent, a child as young as 12 years old may work on a day-to-day basis. Employment of a long-term contractual nature cannot begin until a minor is at least 15. Enforcement of these provisions is inadequate and has actually declined in recent years with increased privatization. The standard workweek is 40 hours for government workers, while most private employers retain a 44 to 48-hour workweek. A minimum wage is fixed by law; as of 2002, it was about $38 a month.

AGRICULTURE

About 5.8% of the total land area is cultivated, with about two-thirds belonging to farmers owning or operating farms of five hectares (12.4 acres) or less. A massive collectivization and cooperative agricultural program was begun in 1967; by the end of 1980, 8,167 self-help villages, involving more than 14 million people, had been established. The program was coupled with the takeover of large estates.

The principal food crops are corn, millet, rice, sorghum, and pulses. The chief cash crops are coffee, cotton, and cashew nuts; sisal, cloves, sugar, tea, pyrethrum, and tobacco are also important. Tanzania is one of Africa's leading producers of sisal; in 2004, production was 23,500 tons. Other estimated agricultural production in 2004 included manioc, 6,890,000 tons; corn, 2,800,000 tons; sorghum, 650,000 tons; rice, 647,000 tons; and millet, 270,000 tons. Production in 2004 also included coffee, 47,000 tons; cotton, 109,000 tons; cashew nuts, 100,000 tons; tea, 25,500 tons; tobacco, 24,500 tons; sweet potatoes, 970,000 tons; white potatoes, 260,000 tons; and 83,000 tons of peanuts. Sugarcane production in that year was an estimated 1,800,000 tons; bananas, 150,400 tons; plantains, 601,600 tons; dry beans, 280,000 tons; seed cotton, 330,000 tons; and cottonseed, 210,000 tons.

Tanzania is the third leading producer of cloves, which are grown mostly on Pemba; production totaled 12,500 tons in 2004. Tanzania is also an important producer of coconuts (370,000 tons in 2004), mostly from the island of Zanzibar.

There was a steady decline in agricultural production during the late 1970s and early 1980s because of drought and low prices paid by the state crop-marketing agencies. In addition, there was a shortage of farm implements; only 3,000 of the nation's 10,000 tractors were in working order in 1982, and even hand hoes and oxen plows were in acute shortage. By 2003, there were some 7,600 tractors in service (down from 8,000 in 1985). Beginning in 1986, reforms of the cooperative unions and crop marketing boards have aided production. The purchase of crops (especially coffee, cotton, sisal, tea, and pyrethrum) has been opened to private traders.

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY

Although large areas are unsuitable for livestock because of the tsetse fly, considerable numbers of cattle, sheep, and goats are kept, and livestock raising makes a substantial contribution to the economy. The estimated livestock population in 2005 included 17,800,000 head of cattle, 12,550,000 goats, 3,521,000 sheep, 455,000 pigs, and 30,000,000 poultry. About 364,000 tons of meat were produced in 2005. Milk production that year consisted of 940,000 tons from cows and 104,000 tons from goats.

FISHING

With over 6% of Tanzania's area consisting of open lake waters, inland fishing, especially on Lake Tanganyika, occupies an important place in the economy. There is also fishing in the Indian Ocean. The total catch was 363,522 tons in 2003, about 83% from inland waters. Nile perch, dagaas, and tilapias are the main species caught.

FORESTRY

Some 38,811,000 hectares (95,902,000 acres), or 43.9% of Tanzania's total land area, is classified as forest. There are about 13,000,000 hectares (32,000,000 acres) of permanent forest reserves. Small plantations for fast-growing trees have been established in these reserves. On the islands, remains of former forests are found only in two reserves.

Production in 2004 included about 23.8 million cu m (840 million cu ft) of roundwood, with 90% used as fuel wood. Sawn wood production was 24,000 cu m (847,000 cu ft) that year.

MINING

With the rebirth of the gold industry, in 1999, gold has dominated the mineral industry in Tanzania, and was expected to grow substantially in the near future. Because of significant exploration successes and government investment incentives, Tanzania's mining sector has been playing an increasingly important role in the economy. Mining sector output, by value, grew by about 17% in 2003, and by 15% in 2002. From 1999 through 2003, substantial increases in gold production spurred growth in the country's mining sector by around 15% annually. Tanzania's gross domestic product (GDP) grew by 7.1% in 2003, of which mining and quarrying accounted for 3% of GDP in that year. Gold was the top export commodity in 2003, accounting for $504.1 million out of a total of $560.2 million in mineral exports for that year. Overall, mineral exports accounted for 48% of Tanzania's exports by value in 2003.

Output of refined gold in 2003 totaled 48,018 kg, up from 43,320 kg in 2002. With the opening of three new mines, and planned investment of $1.5 billion, gold production reached 30,088 kg in 2001 and was expected to reach 57,000 kg in 2007.

Diamond output in 2003 was 236,582 carats, down from 239,761 carats in 2002. Diamonds, 85% of which were gem-quality or semi-gem-quality, were mined at the Williamson field, in Mwadui. The deposits were jointly-owned by the government and Willcroft, of Canada. Diamond production has declined since the 1967 peak (988,000 carats), because of depletion of higher-grade ores and equipment failure. Production hit a low in 1994, of 17,177 carats. Diamond resources were 114 million tons containing 6.5 million carats. The output of other gemstones (including amethyst, aquamarine, chrysoprase, emerald, garnet, kyanite, opal, peridot, lolite, ruby, sapphire, tanzanite, and tourmaline) was 1,530,000 kg in 2003, compared to 196,000 in 2002. African Gem Resources, the new owner of block C of the Merlani mining area, estimated that block C, with resources of 2.24 million tons of ore, grading 22 carats per ton, contained two-thirds of the world's known deposits of tanzanite.

In 2003, Tanzania produced 23,176 metric tons (preliminary) of crude gypsum and anhydrite, as well as calcite, hydraulic cement, crushed limestone, salt, and presumably stone, and sand and gravel. Resources of limestone totaled 155 million tons; marble resources for lime production totaled 137 million tons; and calcitic marble resources amounted to 121 million tons. No iron ore or graphite was produced in 2003. Resources and proven reserves of iron ore, in Itewe, Liganga, and the Uluguru Mountains, totaled 103 million tons. Deposits of cobalt, copper, lead, mica, nickel, phosphates, tin, titanium, tungsten, and uranium were also known to occur, and companies were exploring for cobalt and nickel and planning to produce copper concentrate from a gold mine.

ENERGY AND POWER

Tanzania has proven reserves of natural gas and coal but must rely on imports for all its crude oil.

Tanzania, as of January 2003, had no proven reserves of crude oil, but as of that date, did possess a crude oil refining capacity of 14,900 barrels per day. However, the refinery, as of February 2004, was reported to be no longer operational and was being used as an oil storage area. In 2002, the country's imports and consumption of refined oil products each averaged 21,720 barrels per day. There were no recorded imports or consumption of natural gas in 2002.

Coal is Tanzania's most abundant resource. Reported as of February 2004, the country has recoverable coal reserves of 220 million short tons. In 2002, coal output totaled 91,000 short tons.

Tanzania electric power generating capacity in 2002 came to 0.832 million kW, of which 0.560 million kW was hydroelectric capacity, with conventional thermal capacity at 0.302 million kW. Electric power output in 2002 totaled 2.952 billion kWh, of which hydroelectric power provided 2.709 billion kWh and conventional thermal sources 0.243 billion kWh. Demand for electric power in 2002 totaled 2.773 billion kWh. Electric power imports that year totaled 0.028 billion kWh.

INDUSTRY

Manufacturing output increased by an average of 1.1% during the decade 198090, and by 1.7% between 1988 and 1998, when it accounted for 6.8% of GDP. Industry in general accounted for 17% of GDP in 2000. Along with the results of parastatal inefficiencies; fuel and import costs, lack of foreign exchange, power shortages, lack of spare parts, and unreliable local services have tested the manufacturing sector severely. By 2001, 333 of 395 state-owned companies had been privatized, including tobacco and cashew farms, mines, the brewery, and a cigarette factory.

Tanzanian industry is centered on the processing of local agricultural goods. Some products are exported to neighboring countries: textiles and clothes, shoes, tires, batteries, transformers and switchgear, electric stoves, bottles, cement, and paper. Other industries include oil refining, fertilizers, rolling and casting mills, metal working, beer and soft drinks, vehicle assembly, bicycles, canning, industrial machine goods, glass and ceramics, agricultural implements, electrical goods, wood products, bricks and tiles, oxygen and carbon dioxide, and pharmaceutical products. In the early 2000s, the industrial sector was relatively weak, but made small gains in the production of cement, soft drinks, corrugated iron sheeting, food processing, chemicals, leather products, and textiles. The construction industry was growing at a slow pace at that time, at less than 5% per year.

Oil and natural gas exploration are encouraged, and natural gas reserves were estimated at 2 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) in 2000. Tanzania has one oil refinery at Dar es Salaam with a production capacity of 15,000 barrels per day.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

The Tanzania Commission for Science and Technology, founded in 1958 at Dar es Salaam, advises the government on science and technology policy. Much of the scientific and technical research in Tanzania is directed toward agriculture. Facilities include the Livestock Production Research Institute at Dodoma (founded in 1905), the National Institute for Medical Research at Amani and Mwanza (founded in 1949), the Silviculture Research Institute at Lushoto (founded in 1951), the Agricultural Research Institute of the Ministry of Agriculture at Mlingano (founded in 1934), and the Tropical Pesticides Research Institute at Arusha (founded in 1962). The University of Dar es Salaam (founded in 1961) has faculties of science, medicine, and engineering and an institute of marine sciences; Sokoine University of Agriculture at Morogoro (founded in 1984) has faculties of agriculture, forestry, and veterinary medicine. The Open University of Tanzania (founded in 1992 at Dar es Salaam) has faculties of science, technology, and environmental studies. In 198797, science and engineering students accounted for 37% of college and university enrollments. In 2002, high technology exports were valued at $1 million, or 2% of the country's manufactured exports.

DOMESTIC TRADE

Dar es Salaam is Tanzania's main distribution center. Mombasa, in Kenya, and inland Tanzanian towns also serve as trade centers. Previously, Tanzania used nontariff trade barriers to protect local industries and domestic commerce. With trade liberalization, tariff barriers have been adjusted for this purpose. Most retail shops are small, privately owned establishments that specialize in one or two specific products.

Normal business hours are 7:30 am to 2:30 pm, Monday through Friday; firms that take a lunch break at noon may stay open to 4 or 4:30 pm. Banks are open from 8:30 am to noon, Monday through Friday, and 8:30 to 11 am on Saturday.

FOREIGN TRADE

The chief imports are transport equipment and intermediate and industrial goods machinery. The big traditional export commodities for Tanzania are coffee (17.1%), fish and shellfish (11.6%), and fruits and nuts (including cashews16.8%). Other exports include unfinished tobacco (8.6%) and cotton (7.4%). Since peaking in 199697, growth in traditional commodity exports has stagnated. Traditional commodity exports (coffee, cotton, sisal, tea, tobacco, cashew nuts and cloves) reached $435 million in 1997, but averaged only $218 million annually in 200104. This is largely due to the falling prices at international markets for these commodities. On the other hand, Tanzanian nontraditional exports rose to $327.5 million in 1996, but fell back to $232.2 million in 1998. The fall mainly reflected a decline in exports of petroleum products and manufactured goods. Petroleum exports have been adversely affected by smuggling and by the reforms currently under way in the sector, which have led to the restructuring of the Tanzanian and Italian Petroleum Refinery (Tiper). However, the

Country Exports Imports Balance
World 1,218.4 2,189.5 -971.1
United Kingdom 386.9 108.2 278.7
Japan 88.7 169.7 -81.0
Kenya 83.5 116.3 -32.8
France-Monaco 79.5 40.9 38.6
India 74.4 167.5 -93.1
Netherlands 67.8 32.2 35.6
Uganda 48.1 48.1
South Africa 39.1 306.3 -267.2
Congo (DROC) 36.6 36.6
Belgium 35.6 33.4 2.2
() data not available or not significant.
Current Account -251.3
   Balance on goods -608.8
     Imports -1,511.3
     Exports 902.5
   Balance on services -46.8
   Balance on income -16.2
   Current transfers 420.5
Capital Account 1,168.0
Financial Account -507.0
   Direct investment abroad
   Direct investment in Tanzania 240.4
   Portfolio investment assets
   Portfolio investment liabilities
   Financial derivatives
   Other investment assets 2.9
   Other investment liabilities -750.3
Net Errors and Omissions -83.8
Reserves and Related Items -325.9
() data not available or not significant.

start of large-scale gold mining has resulted in dramatic increases in export earnings for this nontraditional sector expanding export earnings to $911.2 million in 2003.

BALANCE OF PAYMENTS

Tanzania typically runs a current account deficit, although long term capital investment from abroad resulted in surpluses for several years during the 1970s. Agricultural marketing reforms and flexible exchange policies are expected to provide export growth in upcoming years, as exports move from the underground to the official market.

The Economist Intelligence Unit reported that in 2005 the purchasing power parity of Tanzania's exports was $1.573 billion while imports totaled $2.391 billion resulting in a trade deficit of $818 million.

BANKING AND SECURITIES

On 5 February 1967, Tanzania nationalized all banks after the adoption of the Arusha Declaration. From then until 1991, banking was a state monopoly led by the central Bank of Tanzania (BoT) and the National Bank of Commerce (NBC). In 1991, the financial services sector was opened to private and foreign capital. In 1993, the first private banks opened their doors. These were Meridien BIAO and Standard Chartered, the latter being among the UK-owned banks that were nationalized in 1967. Meridien's Zambian-based African network collapsed in 1995, and Stanbic of South Africa took over the Tanzanian subsidiary after its seizure by the BoT. The Kenyan-owned Trust Bank opened in March 1995, to be followed by Eurafrican Bank (a Belgian-led venture). Also in early 1995, the only private bank to be majority-owned by indigenous Tanzanians, First Adili Bank, began business.

In 2002, the BoT was still the central bank and bank of issue, provided advice to the NBC. The NBC, which used to accounted for over 75% of the country's transactions, was split in 1997 into NBC 1997 and the National Microfinance Bank (NMB). Other Tanzanian banks include the People's Bank of Zanzibar, the Tanzania Investment Bank, the Tanzania Housing Bank, the Rural Cooperative and Development Bank (CRDB), and the Tanganyika Post Office Savings Bank. Foreign banks include Citibank, Stanbic Bank, Standard Charter, Bank of Great Britain, EuroAfrican Bank, Akiba Commercial Bank, and Exim Bank.

The International Monetary Fund reports that in 2001, currency and demand depositsan aggregate commonly known as M1were equal to $874.0 million. In that same year, M2an aggregate equal to M1 plus savings deposits, small time deposits, and money market mutual fundswas $1.9 billion. The discount rate, the interest rate at which the central bank lends to financial institutions in the short term, was 8.7%.

The establishment of a local stock market, the Dar es Salaam Stock Exchange (DSE), occurred in March 1998. By 2003 there were four companies listed on the exchange with a total market capitalization of about $500 million: Tanzania Breweries Limited, Tanzania Tea Packers Limited, TOL Limited (producer of industrial gases), and Tanzania Cigarette Company Limited.

INSURANCE

All insurance companies were nationalized in 1967. There is one national insurance company, the National Insurance Corporation of Tanzania, that covers life, fire, automobile, marine, and general accident insurance.

PUBLIC FINANCE

The Tanzanian budget covers cash expenditures and receipts for the mainland only, and does not include Zanzibar government revenues and expenditures. Total expenditures include a development budget and revenues include profits from privatization sales. The fiscal year ends on 30 June. In the early 1980s, the annual budget deficit went over 10% of GDP, and payment arrears on external debts started to mount. Since 1986, the government has improved its fiscal and monetary policies, with mixed results. Tanzania qualified for debt relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative.

The US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) estimated that in 2005 Tanzania's central government took in revenues of approximately $2.2 billion and had expenditures of $2.6 billion. Revenues minus expenditures totaled approximately -$434 million. Public debt in 2005 amounted to 5% of GDP. Total external debt was $7.95 billion.

TAXATION

The corporate income tax rate in 2005 was 30% of taxable profits. Withholding taxes include: a 10% general rate for dividends (5% for companies listed on the Dar es Salaam Stock Exchange); 10% for interest; 15% on royalties; and a 10% rate on rents for residents (15% rate for nonresidents). Capital gains are treated as ordinary business income and subject to the corporate rate.

Income taxes are also levied on wages and salaries. There is a Housing Levy and a Vocational Education Training Levy on gross payroll. There is a value-added tax (VAT) with a standard rate of 20%, as of 2005. Exemptions from VAT include computers, tour operations, hospital equipment, and investments in educational equipment. Other taxes include a stamp duty on sales, a transport withholding tax, local government development levies, an entertainment tax (for non-VAT-registered taxpayers), and airport and seaport departure charges.

CUSTOMS AND DUTIES

Tanzania has a single column tariff with many items dutiable ad valorem. Customs duties range from 025%, not including the VAT. In 1992, the government abolished duties and taxes on raw materials for industry as part of an economic reform program. In 1995, a uniform 5% tax was levied on imported capital goods. Import duties and sales tax apply according to the value of goods. There is a value-added tax of 20%. There are no export controls, except for protected wild animals, and there are no prohibited imports, except for narcotics and other internationally prohibited drugs. Import and export licenses are not needed.

FOREIGN INVESTMENT

From independence in 1961, Tanzania followed state-centered socialist policies. With the initiation of economic reforms in 1986, investment interest in Tanzania has grown considerably in all sectors. Under the Tanzania Investment Promotion Policy of 1990 the Investment Promotion Center was established and by 1997, it had approved about 1,025 projects worth $3.1 billion. The operations of foreign banks were authorized in 1991, and the banking industry was substantially reformed to make it more competitive. In 1992, the Zanzibar Investment Promotion Agency (ZIPA) Act established the Tanzania Investment Center (TIC) as a one-stop shop for facilitating and coordinating private-sector investment, and for issuing certificates of incentives to qualifying investors. The incentive package includes 100% capital allowances in computing gains and profits of an enterprise; 0% import duty on capital equipment in "lead" sectors (mining, oil and gas, tourism, and infrastructure development), and 5% import duty on equipment for projects in "priority" sectors (agriculture, aviation, commercial buildings, development banks, export processing, special regions, human resources development, manufacturing, natural resources, radio and TV broadcasting, and tourism); and an automatic permit to employ up to five foreign nationals. The Tanzania Investment Act of 1997 was strengthened by the Land Act of 1999 and the Village Land Act of 1999, which provide the right to acquire land in urban and rural areas, respectively. As a further impetus for reform, the Tanzanian government has taken steps to qualify under the US Africa Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA), effective 2001, that mandates tariff-free and quota-free access to the US market for countries making market-based reforms.

From 1997 to 2004, annual foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows increased steadily from $157.8 million to $527 million in 2003, slightly dropping to $470 million in 2004. The annual average of foreign direct investment between 1997 and 2004 was $393 million. The 10 leading countries that have invested in Tanzania are the United Kingdom, the United States, Kenya, Canada, South Africa, China, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, and India. Foreign investment has mainly gone into mining, manufactures, agriculture, and tourism.

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

The Tanzanian government has focused in recent years on reorganizing and restructuring its economic institutions. Progress has been encouraging and private sector investors are increasingly interested in mining, transport, tourist, and fishing sector opportunities.

The fourth five-year development plan (198186) was not fully carried out because of Tanzania's economic crisis. Among the projects implemented were an industrial complex, a pulp and paper project, a machine-tool plant, a phosphate plant, and the development of natural gas deposits. The Economic and Social Action Plan of 1990 scaled back the government's ambitions and sought to continue moderate growth in the economy, improve foreign trade, and alleviate some of the social costs of economic reform. Development planning is now conducted on an annual basis, with recent development priorities set in the areas of transport infrastructure, health, and education.

In 2000, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) approved a three-year $181.5 million Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF) Arrangement for Tanzania (it expired in June 2003). With the inception of this program, gross domestic product (GDP) growth averaged more than 5%, while inflation declined to below 5%. The servicing of Tanzania's over $8 billion external debt absorbs around 40% of total government expenditures. In 2001, Tanzania became eligible for $3 billion in debt service relief under the IMF/World Bank Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) initiative. The government has taken steps to attract foreign investment, including revamping tax codes, floating the exchange rate, licensing foreign banks, and creating an investment promotion center to trim bureaucratic red tape. Poverty remains pervasive, however, and is the main target for economic development.

At the annual meeting of the IMF and the World Bank in Washington, DC in September of 2005, the IMF announced its new policy support instrument (PSI), which is likely to replace PRGF programs in countries such as Tanzania that have successfully completed multiple PRGFs. At this meeting, the possibility of a complete write-off of Tanzania's multilateral debt moved closer as the G8 and IMF and World Bank agreed a debt-forgiveness package to be implemented in early 2006.

SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

A social insurance system was implemented in 1998. It covers employees in the private sector, and some public workers and self-employed persons. Domestic workers are excluded, although voluntary coverage is available. Employers contribute 10% of payroll and employees contribute 10% of their wages. Coverage includes old age, disability, and survivorship payments, as well as medical care and maternity benefits. The labor code requires employers to provide severance pay to employees with continuous service of at least three months.

The government advocates equal rights and employment opportunities for women. However, discrimination and violence against women are widespread. The law does not specifically address spousal abuse and victims are hesitant to seek assistance. Female genital mutilation is prevalent. Rape is a significant problem, and the police are ill equipped to deal with the few cases that are actually reported. In Zanzibar, unmarried women who become pregnant and are under the age of 21 are subject to two years' imprisonment. Inheritance laws favor men.

Tanzania's human rights record remains poor. Police abuse of prisoners and detainees is widespread. Prison conditions are poor, and dysentery, malaria, and cholera are common. There are reports that the government has blocked the registration of local human rights organizations.

HEALTH

In 1975, the government began to nationalize all hospitals, including those run by Christian missions; private medical practice was ended in 1980. Medical treatment is free or highly subsidized in company clinics as well as hospitals. The pyramid structure of Tanzania's national health care system, stressing primary care at an affordable cost, makes it a pioneer in sub-Saharan Africa. Approximately, 54% of the population had access to safe drinking water and 90% had adequate sanitation. An estimated 80% of the population had access to health care services and public health care expenditures were 3% of GDP. Life expectancy was 45.24 years in 2005.

There are close to 3,000 rural health facilities, 17 regional hospitals, and 3 national medical centers. As of 2004, it was estimated that there were fewer than 4 physicians per 100,000 people. Medical staff morale was low due to declining wages and management and operational difficulties in the central medical stores and domestic pharmaceuticals industries. Imports of drugs are overseen by the Pharmaceutical Board; there are four local manufacturers.

Special programs of disease control have been carried out with the assistance of the World Health Organization and UNICEF for most major diseases, including malaria, tuberculosis, sleeping sickness, schistosomiasis, poliomyelitis, and yaws. As of 2000, an estimated 44% of children under five were malnourished. Children up to one year old were immunized against tuberculosis, 82%; diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus, 74%; polio, 73%; and measles, 69%. Tanzania's tuberculosis treatment program is less than 20 years old and consists of inexpensive drugs that cut recovery time in half.

As of 2002, the crude birth rate and overall mortality rate were estimated at, respectively, 39.1 and 13 per 1,000 people. About 25% of married women (ages 15 to 49) used contraception in 2000. Infant mortality in 2005 was 98.54 per 1,000 live births. Maternal mortality was an estimated 530 per 100,000 live births.

The female genital mutilation prevalence in Tanzania was lower than most African nations. An estimated 1.5 million or 10% suffered from the procedure. The government of Tanzania has not prohibited it.

The HIV/AIDS prevalence was 8.80 per 100 adults in 2003. As of 2004, there were approximately 1,600,000 people living with HIV/AIDS in the country. There were an estimated 160,000 deaths from AIDS in 2003. The Tanzanian government is working to stop the spread of AIDS by improving the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. Intervention on some STDs has shown a reduction in HIV prevalence.

HOUSING

Tanzania has developed a serious urban housing shortage as a result of the influx of people to the towns. All development planning has included considerable financial allocations for urban housing schemes. With private enterprise unable to meet the demand, the government in 1951 launched a low-cost housing program, which has been continued since that time.

A significant number of dwellings are constructed from mud and poles or from mud bricks and blocks. A smaller percentage of dwellings are made of concrete and stone, or of baked and burned bricks. Piped indoor water is available to about one-fourth of households and over half have private toilets. In 1995, it was estimated that about 70% of the urban population was living in temporary shelters of squatter/slum areas. The housing deficit in urban areas was estimated at 1.2 million units. In 2002, there were an estimated 6,996,036 households; the average household size was 4.9 members.

EDUCATION

Education is compulsory for seven years, generally for children between the ages of 7 and 14. This is covered by a two-stage primary school program (four years plus three years). Students may then attend four years of lower secondary and two years of upper secondary school. In the upper secondary level, students choose three courses of study from the following topics: languages, arts, social sciences, mathematics, sciences, commercial subjects, military science, and technology. All senior secondary students take a course in political education. The academic year runs from September to July.

Primary school enrollment in 2003 was estimated at about 69% of age-eligible students. In 2000, secondary school enrollment was about 4.6% of age-eligible students. It is estimated that about 57.7% of all students complete their primary education. The student-to-teacher ratio for primary school was at about 56:1 in 2003.

The University College in Dar es Salaam opened in 1961 and achieved university status in 1970. The Sokoine University of Agriculture, at Morogoro, was founded in 1984. Other educational facilities in Tanzania include trade schools, the Dar es Salaam Technical College, University College of Lands, Architecture, and Survey (Formerly Ardhi Institute of Dar es Salaam), the Institute of Finance Management and a political science college (both in Dar es Salaam), the College of African Wildlife Management at Mweka, the Institute of Development Management at Morogoro, and the College of National Education in Korogwe. The School of Art at Bagamoyo, devoted to preserving traditional cultures, is one of the few national art schools in sub-Saharan Africa. In 1995, an Open University was established to offer distance learning programs to students in remote areas. The first university to be established on Zanzibar, the University of Zanzibar, opened in 1998. In 2003, it was estimated that about 1% of the tertiary age population were enrolled in tertiary education programs. The adult literacy rate for 2004 was estimated at about 69.4%, with 77.5% for men and 62.2% for women.

As of 2003, public expenditure on education was estimated at 2.2% of GDP.

LIBRARIES AND MUSEUMS

The Tanzania Library Service was established in 1964. It maintains the National Central Library in Dar es Salaam (656,000 volumes), 20 regional public libraries, a school library service, and a rural extension service. The British Council Library and the American Center Library are also in Dar es Salaam. The other major library is the University of Dar es Salaam Library (750,000 volumes). The library at Dar es Salaam Technical College circulates books by mail to all parts of the country. Also in the capital is the library of the East African Literature Bureau. Zanzibar's National Archives has a collection of Arabic manuscripts. The Tanzanian Library Association was founded in 1973.

The National Museums of Tanzania, with branches in Dar es Salaam and Arusha, have ethnographical, archaeological, historical, geological, and natural history sections; the discoveries from Olduvai Gorge are located there. The Department of Geological Survey maintains a geological museum in Dodoma. There are also museums in Arusha, Bagamoyo, Mikumi, Mwanza, and Tabora.

In Zanzibar, the Government Museum has extensive exhibits illustrating the history, ethnography, industries, and natural history of Zanzibar and Pemba. Tabora has the Livingstone and Stanley Memorial site. There is a fine arts museum in Marangu.

MEDIA

In 2003, there were an estimated 4 mainline telephones for every 1,000 people; about 8,000 people were on a waiting list for telephone service installation. The same year, there were approximately 25 mobile phones in use for every 1,000 people.

Radio Tanzania, a government corporation, broadcasts internally in Swahili and English and abroad in English, Afrikaans, and several indigenous African languages. Radio Tanzania Zanzibar broadcasts in Swahili. Private radio and television stations broadcast from Dar es Salaam. As of 1999 there were 12 AM and 4 FM radio stations and 3 television stations. In 2003, there were an estimated 406 radios and 45 television sets for every 1,000 people. The same year, there were 5.7 personal computers for every 1,000 people and 7 of every 1,000 people had access to the Internet. There was one secure Internet server in the country in 2004.

In 2004, there were about 110 newspapers published in English and Kiswahili, including 19 dailies and 53 weeklies. Many of the papers are privately owned. The largest dailies, both published in Dar es Salaam, are the government-owned Daily News (in English), with a circulation of about 50,000 in 2002, and the CCM-owned Uhuru (in Swahili), with a circulation of 100,000. Kipanga (in Swahili) is published on Zanzibar by the government. The constitution provides for freedom of speech and the press; however, the government is said to pressure journalists into self-censorship.

ORGANIZATIONS

In most of the larger centers, chambers of commerce represent commercial, agricultural, and industrial interests. Rural cooperatives, dissolved in 1976, were reintroduced in 1982 to take over from state bodies the functions of crop purchasing and distribution of agricultural products. There are professional associations and unions for a number of fields, such as the Tanzania Teachers' Union and the Tanzania Sports Medicine Association. The Tanzania Consumers Protection Association is active.

The CCM has five principal affiliates: the Umoja Wa Wawawake Wa Tanzania, a women's organization; the Youth League; the Workers' Organization; the Union of Cooperative Societies; and the Tanzania Parents' Association. Cultural organizations include the National Kiswahili Council, which promotes the use of the Swahili language.

The Tanzanian Scout Association, Girl Guides, and YMCA/YWCA programs are available for youth. There are also several sports associations offering youth programs for athletes interested in a variety of pastimes, such as badminton, cricket, lawn tennis, squash, and track and field.

Social action groups include the Catholic Women Organization of Tanzania, the Center for Human Rights Promotion, National Peace Council of Tanzania, and the Tanzania Gender Networking Program. The multinational African Medical and Research FoundationTanzania is based in Dar es Salaam. The Center for Women and Children's Rights, established in 1998, and the Huruma Rehabilitation Programme, established in 1994, are dedicated to promoting and supporting the rights and social welfare of women. Volunteer service organizations, such as the Lions Clubs International, are also present. International organizations with national chapters include Amnesty International, Habitat for Humanity, Africare, Caritas, and the Red Cross.

TOURISM, TRAVEL, AND RECREATION

Tanzania has great natural resources along its Indian Ocean coastline, 29 game reserves and 13 national parks, especially the 14,763 sq km (5,700 sq mi) Serengeti National Park, famed for its profusion of wildlife. Tourists also enjoy the dramatic view of Mt. Kilimanjaro. As of 2006, scientists were predicting that Kilimanjaro's ice cap, which had visibly shrunk during the 1990s, would completely disappear by 2015. Other attractions are the national dancing troupe and the ebony wood sculptures of the Makonde tribe. Visas are required and are valid for Zanzibar as well.

Yellow fever immunizations are required if traveling from an infected area, and malaria suppressants advised.

In 2005, the US Department of State estimated the cost of staying in Dar es Salaam at $255 per day. Other areas were significantly less with daily expenses of $187.

FAMOUS TANZANIANS

The most famous 19th-century Zanzibari was Sayyid Sa'id bin Ahmad al-Albusa'idi (b.Oman, 17911856), who founded the Sultanate. Mkwawa, chief of the Hehe, carried on guerrilla warfare against the Germans for three years until he was betrayed for a reward in 1898. The Germans cut off his head and sent it to the anthropological museum in Bremen; in 1961, Mkwawa's skull was returned to the Hehe. The foremost present-day figure is Julius Kambarage Nyerere (192299), the founder and first president of independent Tanganyika (and later of Tanzania) from 1962 to 1985, when he stepped down. He was succeeded by 'Ali Hassan Mwinyi (b.1925), who had been president of Zanzibar during 198485. Abeid Karume (190572), a sailor of Congolese origin, was the first president of Zanzibar and first vice president of Tanzania until his assassination. He was succeeded by Aboud Jumbe (b.1920), who resigned both posts in 1984. Since 1985, the president of Zanzibar has been Idris Abdul Wakil (b.1925). Edward Moringe Sokoine (193884), a prime minister during 197780 and 198384, was regarded as Nyerere's most likely successor until he died in a car crash. Salim Ahmed Salim (b.1942) was a president of the UN General Assembly during 197980, a foreign minister during 198084, and a prime minister during 198485. An internationally known Tanzanian runner is Filbert Bayi (b.1953), a former world record holder at 1,500 m.

DEPENDENCIES

Tanzania has no territories or colonies.

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