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commutation

commutation was the change from meeting feudal obligations in labour or in kind to cash payments. It had obvious advantages for the lord, since serf labour was often grudging and unenthusiastic and hired labour did not need the same army of organizers: the serf or tenant knew more precisely what his obligations were and could plan his time. Boon work at harvest time was slowest to be commuted since there was bound to be a temporary shortage of labour then. The rate at which commutation took place varied from manor to manor and from region to region, according to local supply and demand of labour, nor was there a regular and steady progress towards a moneyed economy. But a process which began in the 12th cent. accelerated in the 14th, and was almost completed by the 16th cent.

J. A. Cannon

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"commutation." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Encyclopedia.com. 17 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"commutation." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Retrieved August 17, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/commutation

commutation of sentence

commutation of sentence, in criminal law, reduction of a sentence for a criminal act by action of the executive head of the government. Like pardon, commutation of sentence is a matter of grace, not of right; it is distinguished from pardon, however, in that the conviction of crime is not nullified. The commutation, hence, may be granted on condition that the criminal observe certain restrictions for the balance of his original sentence. Many states have statutes providing for commutation of sentence as a reward for good conduct during imprisonment. Once earned, the commutation becomes a matter of right and may be enforced by court action.

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"commutation of sentence." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 17 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"commutation of sentence." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved August 17, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/commutation-sentence

Commutation

COMMUTATION

Modification, exchange, or substitution.

Commutation is the replacement of a greater amount by something lesser. To commute periodic payments means to substitute a single payment for a number of payments, or to come to a "lump sum" settlement.

In criminal law, commutation is the substitution of a lesser punishment for a greater one. Contrasted with clemency, which is an act of grace eliminating a sentence or punishment, commutation is the modification or reduction of a punishment.

The change from consecutive prison sentences to concurrent sentences is a commutation of punishment.

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"Commutation." West's Encyclopedia of American Law. . Encyclopedia.com. 17 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Commutation." West's Encyclopedia of American Law. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 17, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/law/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/commutation

"Commutation." West's Encyclopedia of American Law. . Retrieved August 17, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/law/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/commutation

commutation

com·mu·ta·tion / ˌkämyəˈtāshən/ • n. 1. action or the process of commuting a judicial sentence. ∎  the conversion of a legal obligation or entitlement into another form, e.g., the replacement of an annuity or series of payments by a single payment. 2. the process of commutating an electric current. 3. Math. the property of having a commutative relation.

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"commutation." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. 17 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"commutation." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 17, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/commutation

"commutation." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Retrieved August 17, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/commutation