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cytochrome

cytochrome (sī´təkrōm´), protein containing heme (see coenzyme) that participates in the phase of biochemical respiration called oxidative phosphorylation. Cytochromes act as carriers of hydride ions (sometimes considered to be the equivalent of electron pairs) in the series of complex enzymes known as the electron transport chain. As the hydride ions or their equivalent travel along the electron transport chain, each cytochrome is in turn reduced (accepts a hydride ion or pair of electrons) and then oxidized (donates the hydride ion or pair of electrons to the next acceptor in the chain); in the process the iron atom in the cytochrome heme shuttles between the ferrous and ferric states. The cytochromes were discovered in 1886.

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"cytochrome." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 25 May. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"cytochrome." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved May 25, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/cytochrome

cytochrome

cytochrome Any of a group of proteins, each with an iron-containing haem group, that form part of the electron transport chain in mitochondria and chloroplasts. Electrons are transferred by reversible changes in the iron atom between the reduced Fe(II) and oxidized Fe(III) states. See also cytochrome oxidase.

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"cytochrome." A Dictionary of Biology. . Encyclopedia.com. 25 May. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"cytochrome." A Dictionary of Biology. . Encyclopedia.com. (May 25, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/cytochrome-1

"cytochrome." A Dictionary of Biology. . Retrieved May 25, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/cytochrome-1

cytochrome

cytochrome One of a group of haemoproteins, which are classified into four groups designated a, b, c, and d. They function as electron carriers in a variety of redox reactions in virtually all aerobic organisms.

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"cytochrome." A Dictionary of Plant Sciences. . Encyclopedia.com. 25 May. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"cytochrome." A Dictionary of Plant Sciences. . Encyclopedia.com. (May 25, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/cytochrome

"cytochrome." A Dictionary of Plant Sciences. . Retrieved May 25, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/cytochrome

cytochrome

cytochrome One of a group of haemoproteins, which are classified into four groups designated a, b, c, and d. They function as electron carriers in a variety of redox reactions in virtually all aerobic organisms.

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"cytochrome." A Dictionary of Zoology. . Encyclopedia.com. 25 May. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"cytochrome." A Dictionary of Zoology. . Encyclopedia.com. (May 25, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/cytochrome-0

"cytochrome." A Dictionary of Zoology. . Retrieved May 25, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/cytochrome-0