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adrenaline

adrenaline (also called epinephrine), along with noradrenaline (norepinephrine) and dopamine, are catecholamines (substances containing a dihydroxy phenyl grouping with the hydroxy groups in adjacent positions). All three are released at some nerve terminals to act as neurotransmitters, but adrenaline is also found in the adrenal medulla and in chromaffin cells and can be released from these sites into the circulating blood to have effects throughout the body. Adrenaline is synthesized in the adrenal medulla by the methylation of noradrenaline, and both compounds are released from the gland together. Release of adrenal medullary catecholamines is caused by stressful stimuli, acting via the sympathetic nervous system in the so-called flight, fright, and fight phenomenon. Release of adrenaline prepares the individual to deal with the stress; heart rate and force are increased, blood pressure rises, and blood flow to the skeletal and cardiac muscles is increased, while blood flow to the less essential areas (e.g. gut, skin) is decreased. Adrenaline also mobilizes glycogen energy stores from the liver to increase blood glucose.

Alan W. Cuthbert.


See also adrenal glands; autonomic nervous system.

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"adrenaline." The Oxford Companion to the Body. . Encyclopedia.com. 27 Jun. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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adrenaline

adrenaline (epinephrine) (ă-dren-ă-lin) n. an important hormone secreted by the medulla of the adrenal gland. It has widespread effects on circulation, the muscles, and sugar metabolism. The action of the heart is increased, the rate and depth of breathing are increased, and the metabolic rate is raised; the force of muscular contraction improves and the onset of muscular fatigue is delayed. At the same time the blood supply to the bladder and intestines is reduced, their muscular walls relax, and the sphincters contract. Adrenaline is administered by injection for the emergency treatment of anaphylaxis and cardiac arrest. It is also included in some local anaesthetic solutions, particularly those used in dentistry, to prolong anaesthesia, and is used as eye drops in treating glaucoma.

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adrenaline

adrenaline (epinephrine) A hormone (see formula), produced by the medulla of the adrenal glands, that increases heart activity, improves the power and prolongs the action of muscles, and increases the rate and depth of breathing to prepare the body for ‘fright, flight, or fight’ (see alarm response). At the same time it inhibits digestion and excretion. Similar effects are produced by stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system. Adrenaline can be administered by injection to relieve bronchial asthma and reduce blood loss during surgery by constricting blood vessels. See adrenoceptor.

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"adrenaline." A Dictionary of Biology. . Encyclopedia.com. 27 Jun. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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adrenaline

adrenaline Hormone secreted by the adrenal glands, important in preparing the body's response to stress. It has widespread effects in the body, increasing the strength and rate of heartbeat and the rate and depth of breathing, diverting blood from the skin and digestive system to the heart and muscles, and stimulating the release of glucose from the liver to increase energy supply by promoting increased respiration. Synthetic adrenaline is used medicinally in the resuscitation of patients in shock or following cardiac arrest.

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"adrenaline." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. 27 Jun. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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adrenaline

adrenaline Also known as epinephrine. A hormone secreted by the medulla of the adrenal gland, especially in times of stress or in response to fright or shock. Its main actions are to increase blood pressure and to mobilize tissue reserves of glucose (leading to an increase in the blood glucose concentration) and fat, in preparation for flight or fighting. Derived from the amino acids, phenylalanine or tyrosine.

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adrenalin

adrenalin (adrenaline, epinephrine) A hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla and largely responsible for the ‘fight or flight’ response in mammals. It stimulates the breakdown of glycogen, thus raising the blood-sugar level, it mobilizes free fatty acids, and it has a variety of effects on the cardiovascular and muscular systems.

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"adrenalin." A Dictionary of Zoology. . Encyclopedia.com. 27 Jun. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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adrenaline

a·dren·al·ine / əˈdrenl-in/ (also a·dren·al·in) • n. another term for epinephrine. ∎  (Adrenalin) trademark the hormone epinephrine extracted from animals or prepared synthetically for medicinal purposes.

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"adrenaline." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. 27 Jun. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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adrenaline

adrenaline (ədrĕn´əlĬn, –lēn): see epinephrine.

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"adrenaline." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 27 Jun. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"adrenaline." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved June 27, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/adrenaline

adrenalin

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