Retz, Jean François Paul de Gondi, Cardinal de
Jean François Paul de Gondi Retz, Cardinal de (zhäN fräNswä´ pōl də gôNdē´, də rĕts), 1613–79, French prelate and political leader. He was made (1643) coadjutor to his uncle, the archbishop of Paris. An enemy of Cardinal Mazarin, chief minister for the regent Anne of Austria, Retz was prominent in the Fronde against him. To win Retz's support, Anne nominated him (1651) to be made cardinal; he received the red hat in 1652. At the close of the Fronde, Retz was imprisoned (1652). When his uncle died (1654), he became archbishop of Paris but was not allowed to take office. He appealed unsuccessfully to the pope. After Mazarin's death (1661) he resigned his see in return for several rich abbeys. He occasionally represented the court at Rome. His memoirs (1717; tr., 4 vol., 1723) are classic.
See biography by J. H. Salmon (1969).
"Retz, Jean François Paul de Gondi, Cardinal de." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 20, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/retz-jean-francois-paul-de-gondi-cardinal-de
"Retz, Jean François Paul de Gondi, Cardinal de." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved August 20, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/retz-jean-francois-paul-de-gondi-cardinal-de
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.