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Valerian

Valerian

Description

Valerian (Valeriana officinalis ) is one of about 200 members of the Valerianaceae family. This plant is native to Europe and west Asia; it is naturalized throughout North America. A common name for this hardy perennial is garden heliotrope. Valerian has been valued for its soothing qualities for at least a millennium. The name valerian may have come from the Latin valere meaning "to be strong" or "to be in good health." Chaucer called the herb setewale. Other common names include all-heal, vandal root, and Capon's tail. The Greek doctor Galen called a particularly odorous species of valerian "phu," referring to the distinctively unpleasant smell of the dried root. The strong odor appeals to earthworms, intoxicates cats, and attracts rats. According to legend, the Pied Piper of Hamlin, with the assistance of the odorous valerian root, lured the town's rats to the river to drown. Some Asian species of valerian have a more pleasant aroma and may have included spikenard (the biblical name for valerian), which was known as a perfume from the East.

In ancient times, valerian was believed to be under the influence of the god Mercury. The herb grows in lime-rich soil near streams, or in damp, low meadows where it may reach a height of 5 ft (1.5 m). It is also found in drier environments at higher elevations, where it grows to just 2 ft (0.6 m). Roots harvested from the drier environment may be more medicinally potent. This variety is sometimes known as sylvestus.

Valerian's short vertical rhizome is dark yellow-brown in color and has round rootlets. These rootlets produce hollow, fluted stems with opposite leaves and a single leaflet at the tip, and as many as eight to 10 pairs of toothed leaflets. The upper leaves are attached at their base and emerge from a white sheath along the stem. The stems remain erect and unbranched until the very top, were the small, white flowers, tinged with pink, bloom in clusters in the middle of summer. Seeds are winged with tufts of white hair, and they scatter on the wind.

General Use

As of 2003, researchers have identified some of the active ingredients in valerian that are responsible for its medicinal properties. A team of pharmacologists in Argentina reported in the spring of 2003 that they had isolated two new flavonoids, 6-methylapigenin and hesperidin, as compounds with sedative and sleep-enhancing properties. In addition to these flavonoids, valerian contains volatile oil, valepotriates, glycosides, alkaloids, choline, tannins, and resins. Valerian's rhizome and root are the medicinal part of this herb. Fresh root will produce the highest quality of medicinal extract.

Valerian acts as a pain reliever, antispasmodic, sedative, carminative, and can help support nerve tissue. A British study published in 2002 suggests that valerian's effectiveness in relieving stress is related to its ability to lower the body's reactivity in stressful situations. Valerian can also help to promote menstrual flow. As a natural tranquilizer, valerian can soothe anxiety , nervous tension, insomnia , and headache . It acts on the peripheral nerves and relaxes both the smooth and skeletal muscle tissue to reduce tension. It also strengthens the heart and provides relief from menstrual cramps, stomach cramps, irritable bowel, and upset stomach caused by nerves. Valerian has also been shown to lower blood pressure. One study found that valerian tends to sedate the agitated person and stimulate the fatigued person, bringing about a balancing effect on the system. Externally, a lotion prepared with valerian extract will ease irritation of skin rashes and soothe swollen joints.

The plant has been used as a medicinal herb for more than a thousand years, especially for mild cases of insomnia. Research shows that proper use of valerian promotes sleep, reduces night awakenings, and increases dream recall in most people. Historically, valerian has been highly regarded as a tranquilizer that acts without narcotic effects. It is particularly popular with women; a recently introduced herbal formula for menopausal women contains valerian along with hops and black cohosh as an active ingredient. The herb has also been used to treat illnesses as diverse as epilepsy and the plague. In the sixteenth century, valerian was reported to have cured a case of epilepsy. It was also used to treat hysteria, migraine, and vertigo. Culpeper recommended the herb for "driving away splinters or thorns from the flesh." Valerian was listed in the United States Pharmacopoeia from the early seventeenth century until the mid-twentieth century. During World War I, soldiers traumatized by the constant bombing and those suffering from "shell shock" were treated with valerian. The herb was listed in the U.S. National Formulary until 1950, and continues to be listed in the official pharmacopoeias of Germany, Belgium, and France.

More recently, valerian is being studied as a possible chemopreventive for cancer . Further research is necessary, however, to determine its effectiveness in this regard.

Preparations

Valerian root should be harvested in the autumn of its second year. Valerian works well in combination with other tranquilizing herbs such as passionflower (Passiflora incarnata ) to safely induce sleep, or skullcap (Scutellaria laterifolia ) to relieve nervous tension. The somewhat bitter, unpleasant taste of the tea may be masked by adding peppermint oil, or the user can take the herb in capsule form. Combinations contain equal parts of each herb. The herb may be drunk as an herbal tea, used as a tincture, or swallowed in capsule form one hour before bedtime.

Precautions

Valerian should not be used in large doses or for an extended period. People should not take it continuously for more than two to three weeks. Users of valerian may become tolerant to its effects with prolonged use. Increasing the dose of the herb to achieve desired effects may result in negative side effects. Prolonged use, according to some research, could result in liver damage and central nervous system impairment.

Side effects

Large doses of valerian may occasionally cause headache, muscle spasm, heart palpitations, dizziness , gastric distress, sleeplessness, and confusion. Uninterrupted use may cause depression .

Interactions

Although valerian has been regarded as a relatively safe herb because few interactions with prescription medications have been reported, newer research indicates that it should be used cautiously following surgery. Like St. Johnís wort, valerian can interact with anesthetics and other medications given to patients after surgery. Because valerian has a mild sedative effect, it should not be taken together with alcoholic beverages, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, or antihistamines. Long-term safety studies of valerian have not been done as of early 2003.

Resources

BOOKS

McIntyre, Anne. The Medicinal Garden. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1997.

Ody, Penelope. The Complete Medicinal Herbal. New York: Dorling Kindersley, 1993.

PDR for Herbal Medicines. NJ: Medical Economics Company, 1998.

Pelletier, Kenneth R., MD. The Best Alternative Medicine, Part I: Western Herbalism. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2002.

Prevention's 200 Herbal Remedies, 3rd edition. Excerpted from The Complete Book of Natural & Medicinal Cures. Pennsylvania: Rodale Press, Inc., 1997.

Tyler, Varro E., Ph.D. The Honest Herbal. New York: Pharmaceutical Products Press, 1993.

OTHER

PERIODICALS

Ang-Lee, Michael, et al. " Herbal Medicines and Perioperative Care." Journal of the American Medical Association 286 (July 11, 2001): 208.

Cropley, M., Z. Cave, J. Ellis, and R. W. Middleton. "Effect of Kava and Valerian on Human Physiological and Psychological Responses to Mental Stress Assessed Under Laboratory Conditions." Phytotherapy Research 16 (February 2002): 2327.

Hadley, S., and J. J. Petry. "Valerian." American Family Physician 67 (April 15, 2003): 17551758.

Kapadia, G. J., M. A. Azuine, H. Tokuda, et al. "Inhibitory Effect of Herbal Remedies on 12-o-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-Acetate-Promoted Epstein-Barr Virus Early Antigen Activation." Pharmacological Research 45 (March 2002): 213222.

Marder, M., H. Viola, C. Wasowski, et al. "6-Methylapigenin and Hesperidin: New Valeriana Flavonoids with Activity on the CNS." Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior 75 (June 2003): 537545.

Sun, J. "Morning/Evening Menopausal Formula Relieves Menopausal Symptoms: A Pilot Study." Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 9 (June 2003): 403409.

Tesch, B. J. "Herbs Commonly Used by Women: An Evidence-Based Review." American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 188 (May 2003) (Suppl 5): S44S55.

ORGANIZATIONS

National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) Clearinghouse. P.O. Box 7923, Gaithersburg, MD 20898-7923. (888) 644-6226. <http://nccam.nih.gov>.

U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 5600 Fishers Lane, Rockville, MD 20857. (888) 463-6332. <http://www.fda.gov>.

Clare Hanrahan

Rebecca J. Frey, PhD

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Valerian

Valerian

Definition

Valerian is an herbal remedy derived from the dried roots of the valerian plant, Valeriana officinalis. The plant belongs to the Valerianaceae family. It has been used for over a thousand years as a mild sedative and hypnotic (a preparation that brings on sleep). Valerian is native to Europe and parts of Asia; it has since been introduced in the United States, placed under cultivation and now growing in the wild, as well. It is often cultivated for its pinkish white or lavender flowers as well as for its medicinal uses. The name "valerian" is thought to derive from the Latin verb valere, which means "to be well." It is also sometimes said to derive from Valeria, the province of the Roman Empire where the plant may have originated.

According to one marketing research firm, valerian is the fastest-growing herbal remedy in the United States; its sales more than doubled between 2000 and 2001.

Purpose

Valerian is most commonly used to relieve mild cases of anxiety and insomnia . It was given during World War I to soldiers suffering from battle shock. It has also been recommended for the relief of menstrual cramps and as a carminative, or preparation that relieves gas in the stomach and intestines. Lotions made with valerian extract are said to soothe skin rashes and swollen joints.

Description

The valerian plant prefers the damp lime-rich soil near streams or rivers, where it may grow as tall as 5 ft(1.5 m). It can, however, be grown in drier soil at higher elevations, where it may grow only 2 ft (.67 m) tall. Some herbalists consider the drier-climate variety of valerian to have greater medicinal potency.

The parts of the plant that are used for medicinal purposes are the roots and rhizomes (horizontal underground stems), which are typically yellowish-brown in color. The roots and rhizomes are harvested in the autumn of the plant's second year. They can be freeze-dried and used to prepare tablets or capsules containing the ground herb. Juice can be pressed from the fresh root, or the root may be mixed with alcohol to become a fluid extract or tincture of valerian. When valerian is used to relieve tension or induce sleep, it is frequently combined with either passionflower (Passiflora incarnata ), lemon balm (Melissa officinalis ) or skullcap (Scutellaria laterifolia ). Because valerian tea has a somewhat bitter taste, flavorings are often added, including peppermint or fruit flavor, to make a more pleasant-tasting drink.

Although not all the compounds in valerian that have medicinal value have been identified, two compounds in its essential oilvalerenic acid and bornyl appear to be the most important. Like most prescription tranquilizers, valerian appears to affect a neurotransmitter (GABA) in the central nervous system.

There is some disagreement among researchers about the efficacy of valerian as a tranquilizer and aid to sleep. While a team of Swiss researchers found a valerian/lemon balm combination to be significantly more effective than a placebo in inducing sleep, another group in the United States concluded that valerian is overrated as a sedative. Further research may help to settle the question, but multiple studies that are currently available are inconclusive. It appears to have mild sedative properties.

Recommended dosage

Experts in herbal preparations recommend that valerian products should be standardized to contain 0.8% valerenic or valeric acid.

Adults may use the following amounts of valerian to reduce nervousness or relieve menstrual cramps:

  • 23 g dried root in tea, up to several times daily
  • 1/41/2 tsp (13 mL) valerian tincture, up to several times daily
  • 1/4 tsp (12 mL) fluid extract
  • 150300 mg valerian extract, standardized to contain0.8% valerenic acid

To relieve insomnia, one of the above dosages may be taken 3045 min before bedtime. It may take one to two weeks of regular use before the herbal preparation takes effect.

When giving valerian to children, recommended adult dosages should be adjusted in proportion to the child's weight. Most dosages of herbal products are calculated for an adult weighing 150 lb (70 kg). A child weighing 75 lb (35 kg) should therefore receive 1/2 the adult dose.

Precautions

Persons who take valerian should consult an experienced herbalist about dosage and about reliable sources of the herb. Because herbal preparations are not regulated by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration, consumers cannot be certain of the freshness and potency of commercial herbal products. In July 2001, an independent laboratory published the results of its tests of 17 valerian products; only nine contained the amount of valerian that their labels claimed. Of the remaining eight products, four contained only half the amount of valerian that they should have, and the other four contained none at all.

Although valerian has a good reputation for safety when used as directed, it should not be used in high doses or taken continuously for longer than two to three weeks.

,

Side effects

Some people taking valerian may experience a paradoxical effect; that is, they may feel agitated or jittery instead of relaxed or sleepy. This side effect is not dangerous, but it should be reported to the patient's health care provider. If the dosage is too high, an individual could experience longer sleep than usual, and wake up not feeling well-rested.

Prolonged use of valerian results in tolerance, and increasing the dose may have serious side effects. According to some researchers, long-term use of valerian may cause psychological depression, damage to the liver, or damage to the central nervous system.

High short-term doses of valerian have been reported to cause headaches, muscle spasms, dizziness, digestive upsets, insomnia, and confusion.

Interactions

Although valerian has been regarded as a relatively safe herb because few interactions with prescription medications have been reported, newer research indicates that it should be used cautiously following surgery. Like St. John's wort , valerian can interact with anesthetics and other medications given to patients after surgery. Because valerian has a mild sedative effect, it should not be taken together with alcoholic beverages, benzodiazepines, barbiturates , or antihistamines. Some components of valerian are metabolized in the liver. This herb has the potential to interact with liver metabolizaed prescription medicines.

Resources

BOOKS

Medical Economics Staff. PDR for Herbal Medicines. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company, 1998.

Tyler, Varro E., Ph.D. The Honest Herbal. New York: Pharmaceutical Products Press, 1993.

PERIODICALS

Ang-Lee, Michael, and others. " Herbal Medicines and Perioperative Care." Journal of the American Medical Association 286 (July 11, 2001): 208.

Cerny, A., and K. Schmid. "Tolerability and efficacy of valerian/lemon balm in healthy volunteers (a double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre study)." Fitoterapia 70(1999): 221228.

"Valerian for Insomnia: Jury Still Out." Consumer Reports on Health 13 (December 2001): 10.

Wallace, Phil. " Valerian Products Found to Lack Key Ingredient." Food Chemical News 43 (July, 2001): 12.

Rebecca J. Frey, Ph.D.

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Valerian

Valerian

The Roman emperor Valerian (ca. 200-ca. 260), or Publius Licinius Valerianus, attempted to stay the advances of the barbarians and the Persians on Roman territory and was a vigorous persecutor of the Christians.

The background of Valerian prior to his accession as emperor is uncertain. He had evidently had both civic and military experience and had served with sufficient distinction to be awarded the consulship. He was popular with the Senate. One source mentions him as part of a delegation coming from North Africa to support the usurping Gordian emperors against Emperor Maximinus Thrax (238). He probably held an important position under Emperor Trajan Decius (249-251), and there may be a connection between his service under that emperor, a persecutor of Christians, and his own anti-Christian activity.

Emperor by Default

Valerian must also have been highly regarded by Emperor Trebonianus Gallus, for when Gallus was challenged by the usurper Aemilianus, Gallus had Valerian gather troops for him in the northern provinces. Valerian was in the province of Raetia (modern Switzerland) when the news of Gallus's murder by his own troops reached him. Valerian was then saluted as emperor by his own army. Shortly thereafter, the troops of Aemilianus slew their commander and went over to Valerian. He was also accepted by the Senate in Rome.

Almost any emperor in the mid-3rd century faced an impossible situation. The frontiers were thereatened in almost every sector either by barbarian hordes or by the growing power of the Sassanian Persian kingdom. It was impossible for an emperor to cover every frontier; yet to delegate authority meant to create a potential rival who after a few victories might attempt to make himself emperor. Valerian attempted to solve this problem by associating with him in the honors and powers of the emperorship his son Gallienus. Gallienus became in fact almost a coregent.

Repression of Christianity

A second major crisis of the empire was that of spiritual values. Traditional Romans regarded traditional religion as one of the foundations of their success, but this religion was being challenged by many sects, especially the Christians, who seemed most opposed to normal Roman religious practice. Sporadic efforts were made to control or exterminate the sect but without success. Valerian is supposed to have been initially sympathetic to the Christians, but by the 4th year of his reign (257) his attitude changed. He may have felt it important in a period of crisis to have maximum support for the Roman gods. An edict directed primarily against the clergy was issued. It required them to show some form of veneration for Roman ceremonials and prohibited all types of Christian services, including those at cemeteries. This was followed by a second edict, which imposed various sentences against Christians, including death for bishops and other ecclesiastical officials and loss of rights and property for lay Christians. Many individual Christians suffered from these decrees, but they failed to stop the growth of the religion.

Meanwhile, foreign problems took the attention of Valerian. The Persian king Shahpur I had raided the Eastern provinces and seized Antioch, the third-largest city in the empire. In 256 or 257 Valerian went to the East. Shahpur yielded Antioch, but Valerian found himself faced by a continuing Persian menace and also an incursion of the Goths into Asia Minor. In spite of the fact that he had no generals he could really trust, Valerian dispatched forces against the Goths.

Valerian's own armies were weakened by a plague, but nonetheless he was forced to return to the Persian menace, which now centered upon the city of Edessa. While trying to relieve the city, Valerian was captured by Shahpur. The circumstances of his capture are uncertain. Some sources say that he was seized by a ruse, and others that his army was overwhelmed. In any case the Persian king was extremely proud of his prize and carved monumental cliff reliefs showing Valerian kneeling before him. Christian writers depict a harsh captivity for Valerian, but this may reflect a desire to see justice done by God for Valerian's persecution of the Christians. Whatever the circumstances, Valerian seems to have died within a short time of his capture. His son Gallienus succeeded him.

Further Reading

Part of an ancient biography of Valerian survives in the Scriptores historiae Augustae. It contains many inaccuracies. The 5th-century historian Zesimus also has an account of Valerian. For a general discussion see the Cambridge Ancient History, vol. 12 (1939). The persecutions are dealt with in Patrick J. Healy, The Valerian Persecution (1905). □

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Valerian (Roman emperor)

Valerian (Publius Licinius Valerianus) (vəlēr´ēən), d. after 260, Roman emperor (253–60). He held important posts, both civil and military, under the emperors Decius and Gallus. After the short reign of the former general Aemilianus, Valerian was proclaimed emperor. In 257 he organized a general persecution of the Christians. Although not an incapable man, he was nevertheless unsuited to rule in such a critical time, for N Italy, Greece, and Asia Minor were falling to the barbarians and to the Persians. Appointing his son, Gallienus, as coregent, Valerian undertook a campaign in the East against Shapur I of Persia, who destroyed the Roman army and took (260) the emperor prisoner. Valerian died in captivity and was succeeded by Gallienus.

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valerian (in botany)

valerian, common name for some members of the Valerianaceae, a family chiefly of herbs and shrubs of temperate and colder regions of the Northern Hemisphere; a few species, however, are native to the Andes. The name valerian is popularly used for plants of the genus Valeriana and also for other related plants that are cultivated in flower gardens or borders for the numerous small and fragrant blossoms. The common valerian (V. officinalis) is sometimes grown under the name garden heliotrope, although it is unrelated to the true heliotropes. A perennial herb, it was used as a condiment during the Middle Ages and later as the source of a perfume oil (from the scented roots and rhizomes). It is still cultivated in parts of N Europe and in some Asian countries for the essential oil, sometimes substituted for that of the related spikenard, and for the dried roots and rhizomes, also called valerian and used medicinally as a sedative and carminative. The active ingredients are valopotriates. In the N United States the common valerian is found naturalized in the North, and several species grow indigenously elsewhere, e.g., V. ciliata on the prairies and V. uliginosa in eastern swamps and moist woodlands. The red valerian, or Jupiter's-beard (Centranthus ruber), and the African valerian (Fedia cornucopiae) are among other ornamental species native to the Old World. The valerian family is classified in the division Magnoliophyta, class Magnoliopsida, order Dipsacales.

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valerian

va·le·ri·an / vəˈli(ə)rēən/ • n. a plant that typically bears clusters of small pink or white flowers. Native to Eurasia, several species have been introduced to North America. • Family Valerianaceae: several species, in particular common valerian (Valeriana officinalis), a valued medicinal herb, and the Mediterranean red valerian (Centranthus ruber), grown for its spurred flowers, which attract butterflies. ∎  a drug obtained from the root of common valerian, used as a sedative and antispasmodic.

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valerian

valerian Extracts and the essential oil of the herbaceous perennial Valeriana officianalis, used as flavouring in many foods. The root has traditionally been used as a sedative and tranquillizer, with evidence of efficacy.

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valerian

valerian (garden heliotrope) Plant native to Europe and n Asia and naturalized in the USA. It has pinkish or pale purple flower clusters. Height: to 1.2m (4ft). Family Valerianaceae; species Valeriana officinalis.

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Valerian

Valerian (d.260), Roman emperor 253–60, who renewed the persecution of the Christians initiated by Decius. He died after being captured while campaigning against the Persians of the Sassanian dynasty.

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valerian

valerian herb of the genus Valeriana. XIV. — (O)F. valériane — medL. valeriana.

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valerian

valerian See VALERIANACEAE.

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"valerian." A Dictionary of Plant Sciences. . Retrieved August 19, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/valerian

valerian

valerianantipodean, Crimean, Judaean, Korean •Albion •Gambian, Zambian •lesbian •Arabian, Bessarabian, Fabian, gabion, Sabian, Swabian •amphibian, Libyan, Namibian •Sorbian •Danubian, Nubian •Colombian • Serbian • Nietzschean •Chadian, Trinidadian •Andean, Kandyan •guardian •Acadian, Akkadian, Arcadian, Barbadian, Canadian, circadian, Grenadian, Hadean, Orcadian, Palladian, radian, steradian •Archimedean, comedian, epicedian, median, tragedian •ascidian, Derridean, Dravidian, enchiridion, Euclidean, Floridian, Gideon, Lydian, meridian, Numidian, obsidian, Pisidian, quotidian, viridian •Amerindian, Indian •accordion, Edwardian •Cambodian, collodion, custodian, melodeon, nickelodeon, Odeon •Freudian • Bermudian • Burundian •Burgundian •Falstaffian, Halafian •Christadelphian, Delphian, Philadelphian •nymphean • ruffian • Brobdingnagian •Carolingian • Swedenborgian •logion, Muskogean •Jungian •magian, Pelagian •collegian •callipygian, Cantabrigian, Phrygian, Stygian •Merovingian • philologian • Fujian •Czechoslovakian • Pickwickian •Algonquian • Chomskian •Kentuckian •battalion, galleon, medallion, rapscallion, scallion •Anglian, ganglion •Heraklion •Dalian, Malian, Somalian •Chellean, Machiavellian, Orwellian, Sabellian, Trevelyan, triskelion •Wesleyan •alien, Australian, bacchanalian, Castalian, Deucalion, episcopalian, Hegelian, madrigalian, mammalian, Pygmalion, Salian, saturnalian, sesquipedalian, tatterdemalion, Thessalian, Westphalian •anthelion, Aristotelian, Aurelian, carnelian, chameleon, Karelian, Mendelian, Mephistophelian, Pelion, Sahelian •Abbevillian, Azilian, Brazilian, caecilian, Castilian, Chilean, Churchillian, civilian, cotillion, crocodilian, epyllion, Gillian, Lilian, Maximilian, Pamphylian, pavilion, postilion, Quintilian, reptilian, Sicilian, Tamilian, vaudevillian, vermilion, Virgilian •Aeolian, Anatolian, Eolian, Jolyon, Mongolian, napoleon, simoleon •Acheulian, Boolean, cerulean, Friulian, Julian, Julien •bullion •mullion, scullion, Tertullian •Liverpudlian •Bahamian, Bamian, Damian, Mesopotamian, Samian •anthemion, Bohemian •Endymion, prosimian, Simeon, simian •isthmian • antinomian •Permian, vermian •Oceanian •Albanian, Azanian, Iranian, Jordanian, Lithuanian, Mauritanian, Mediterranean, Panamanian, Pennsylvanian, Pomeranian, Romanian, Ruritanian, Sassanian, subterranean, Tasmanian, Transylvanian, Tripolitanian, Turanian, Ukrainian, Vulcanian •Armenian, Athenian, Fenian, Magdalenian, Mycenaean (US Mycenean), Slovenian, Tyrrhenian •Argentinian, Arminian, Augustinian, Carthaginian, Darwinian, dominion, Guinean, Justinian, Ninian, Palestinian, Sardinian, Virginian •epilimnion, hypolimnion •Bosnian •Bornean, Californian, Capricornian •Aberdonian, Amazonian, Apollonian, Babylonian, Baconian, Bostonian, Caledonian, Catalonian, Chalcedonian, Ciceronian, Devonian, draconian, Estonian, Etonian, gorgonian, Ionian, Johnsonian, Laconian, Macedonian, Miltonian, Newtonian, Oregonian, Oxonian, Patagonian, Plutonian, Tennysonian, Tobagonian, Washingtonian •Cameroonian, communion, Mancunian, Neptunian, Réunion, union •Hibernian, Saturnian •Campion, champion, Grampian, rampion, tampion •thespian • Mississippian • Olympian •Crispian •Scorpian, scorpion •cornucopian, dystopian, Ethiopian, Salopian, subtopian, Utopian •Guadeloupian •Carian, carrion, clarion, Marian •Calabrian, Cantabrian •Cambrian • Bactrian •Lancastrian, Zoroastrian •Alexandrian • Maharashtrian •equestrian, pedestrian •agrarian, antiquarian, apiarian, Aquarian, Arian, Aryan, authoritarian, barbarian, Bavarian, Bulgarian, Caesarean (US Cesarean), centenarian, communitarian, contrarian, Darien, disciplinarian, egalitarian, equalitarian, establishmentarian, fruitarian, Gibraltarian, grammarian, Hanoverian, humanitarian, Hungarian, latitudinarian, libertarian, librarian, majoritarian, millenarian, necessarian, necessitarian, nonagenarian, octogenarian, ovarian, Parian, parliamentarian, planarian, predestinarian, prelapsarian, proletarian, quadragenarian, quinquagenarian, quodlibetarian, Rastafarian, riparian, rosarian, Rotarian, sabbatarian, Sagittarian, sanitarian, Sauveterrian, sectarian, seminarian, septuagenarian, sexagenarian, topiarian, totalitarian, Trinitarian, ubiquitarian, Unitarian, utilitarian, valetudinarian, vegetarian, veterinarian, vulgarian •Adrian, Hadrian •Assyrian, Illyrian, Syrian, Tyrian •morion • Austrian •Dorian, Ecuadorean, historian, Hyperborean, Nestorian, oratorian, praetorian (US pretorian), salutatorian, Salvadorean, Singaporean, stentorian, Taurean, valedictorian, Victorian •Ugrian • Zarathustrian •Cumbrian, Northumbrian, Umbrian •Algerian, Cancerian, Chaucerian, Cimmerian, criterion, Hesperian, Hitlerian, Hyperion, Iberian, Liberian, Nigerian, Presbyterian, Shakespearean, Siberian, Spenserian, Sumerian, valerian, Wagnerian, Zairean •Arthurian, Ben-Gurion, centurion, durian, holothurian, Khachaturian, Ligurian, Missourian, Silurian, tellurian •Circassian, Parnassian •halcyon • Capsian • Hessian •Albigensian, Waldensian •Dacian • Keatsian •Cilician, Galician, Lycian, Mysian, Odyssean •Leibnizian • Piscean • Ossian •Gaussian • Joycean • Andalusian •Mercian • Appalachian • Decian •Ordovician, Priscian •Lucian •himation, Montserratian •Atlantean, Dantean, Kantian •bastion, Erastian, Sebastian •Mozartian • Brechtian • Thyestean •Fortean • Faustian • protean •Djiboutian •fustian, Procrustean •Gilbertian, Goethean, nemertean •pantheon •Hogarthian, Parthian •Lethean, Promethean •Pythian • Corinthian • Scythian •Lothian, Midlothian •Latvian • Yugoslavian •avian, Batavian, Flavian, Moldavian, Moravian, Octavian, Scandinavian, Shavian •Bolivian, Maldivian, oblivion, Vivian •Chekhovian, Harrovian, Jovian, Pavlovian •alluvion, antediluvian, diluvian, Peruvian •Servian • Malawian • Zimbabwean •Abkhazian • Dickensian •Caucasian, Malaysian, Rabelaisian •Keynesian •Belizean, Cartesian, Indonesian, Milesian, Salesian, Silesian •Elysian, Frisian, Parisian, Tunisian •Holmesian •Carthusian, Malthusian, Venusian

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"valerian." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Encyclopedia.com. 19 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"valerian." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 19, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/valerian-0

"valerian." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Retrieved August 19, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/valerian-0