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spruce

spruce, any plant of the genus Picea, evergreen trees or shrubs of the family Pinaceae (pine family) widely distributed in the Northern Hemisphere. The needles are angular in cross section, rather than flattened as in the related hemlocks and firs. The Norway spruce (P. abies), an important timber tree of Europe, is one of the most commonly cultivated evergreens. The Siberian spruce (P. obovata) grows in coniferous forests (taiga) of Russia and Siberia, the Oriental spruce (P. orientalis) is a major species of S Europe, and the yeddo spruce (P. jezoensis) of Manchuria and Japan is sometimes dwarfed and potted (see dwarf tree). North American spruces used for timber are the red spruce (P. rubens), white spruce (P. glauca), and black spruce (P. mariana) of the East; the Engelmann spruce (P. engelmanii) of the Rocky Mountain forests; and the Sitka spruce (P. sitchensis) of the Pacific forest belt. Numerous spruces are cultivated as ornamentals; the most popular North American garden spruce is the frosty- or silvery-blue-needled Colorado blue spruce (P. pungens). Commercially, spruces are of particular value as a major source of pulpwood for the manufacture of paper. Wood of the various species is usually light, soft, and straight-grained and has been used for interior and exterior construction work, boats, airplanes, and woodenware. The bark is sometimes used for tanning, and some species yield a gum resin. Spruce beer has been made from the young shoots of the red spruce and the black spruce. Native Americans in the West have used spruce gum for caulking, the inner bark for food, and strips of spruce for weaving watertight mats and baskets. Spruce is classified in the division Pinophyta, class Pinopsida, order Coniferales, family Pinaceae.

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"spruce." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 28 Jun. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"spruce." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (June 28, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/spruce

"spruce." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved June 28, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/spruce

spruce

spruce1 / sproōs/ • n. a widespread coniferous tree (genus Picea) of the pine family that has a distinctive conical shape and hanging cones, widely grown for timber, pulp, and Christmas trees. spruce2 • adj. neat in dress and appearance: he looked as spruce as if he were getting married. • v. [tr.] (spruce someone/something up) make a person or place smarter or tidier: the fund will be used to spruce up historic buildings. DERIVATIVES: spruce·ly adv. spruce·ness n.

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"spruce." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. 28 Jun. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"spruce." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. (June 28, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/spruce-0

"spruce." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Retrieved June 28, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/spruce-0

spruce

spruce Various evergreen trees, related to firs, native to mountainous or cooler temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Pyramid-shaped and dense, they have angular rather than flattened needles and pendulous cones. The timber is used in cabinet-making, and some species yield turpentine. Height: to 52m (170ft). Family Pinaceae; genus Picea.

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"spruce." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. 28 Jun. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"spruce." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. (June 28, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/spruce

"spruce." World Encyclopedia. . Retrieved June 28, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/spruce

spruce

spruce †brisk, lively; trim, neat. XVI. poss. from a particular collocation of Spruce = Pruce Prussia, e.g. Spruce leather (jerkin).
Hence vb. XVI.

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"spruce." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Encyclopedia.com. 28 Jun. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"spruce." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Encyclopedia.com. (June 28, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/spruce-1

"spruce." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Retrieved June 28, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/spruce-1

spruce

spruce See PICEA.

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"spruce." A Dictionary of Plant Sciences. . Encyclopedia.com. 28 Jun. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"spruce." A Dictionary of Plant Sciences. . Encyclopedia.com. (June 28, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/spruce

"spruce." A Dictionary of Plant Sciences. . Retrieved June 28, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/spruce

spruce

spruceabstruse, abuse, adduce, Ballets Russes, Belarus, Bruce, burnous, caboose, charlotte russe, conduce, deduce, deuce, diffuse, douce, educe, excuse, goose, induce, introduce, juice, Larousse, loose, luce, misuse, moose, mousse, noose, obtuse, Palouse, papoose, produce, profuse, puce, recluse, reduce, Rousse, seduce, sluice, Sousse, spruce, traduce, truce, use, vamoose, Zeus •cayuse • calaboose • mongoose •Aarhus • verjuice • couscous •footloose • ventouse • refuse •Odysseus • Idomeneus • hypotenuse •Syracuse

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"spruce." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Encyclopedia.com. 28 Jun. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"spruce." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Encyclopedia.com. (June 28, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/spruce

"spruce." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Retrieved June 28, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/spruce