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Saffron

Saffron

Description

Saffron is a herbal preparation harvested from the stigma of the Crocus sativus flower. It is dark orange and threadlike in appearance, with a spicy flavor and pungent odor. The plant is grown in India, Spain, France, Italy, the Middle East, and the eastern Mediterranean region.

General use

In addition to its culinary uses, saffron is prescribed as a herbal remedy to stimulate the digestive system, ease colic and stomach discomfort, and minimize gas . It is also used as an emmenagogue, to stimulate and promote menstrual flow in women.

Preliminary studies have shown that saffron may also be a useful tool in fighting cancer . According to a 1999 study, use of the herb slowed tumor growth and extended lifespan in female rats. A 2002 study done at Indiana University indicates that saffron may not only be effective in treating certain types of cancer, but significantly less likely to cause birth defects if given to pregnant women than all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), the compound most often given to treat these cancers. Saffron may thus be a preferable alternative to treating ATRA-sensitive cancers in women of childbearing age.

Additional human studies have indicated that saffron has powerful antioxidant properties; that is, it helps to protect living tissues from free radicals and other harmful effects of oxidation.

Two chemical components of saffron extract, crocetin and crocin, reportedly improved memory and learning skills in learning-impaired rats in a Japanese study published in early 2000. These properties indicate that saffron extract may be a useful treatment for neurodegenerative disorders and related memory impairment.

Preparations

Saffron is harvested by drying the orange stigma of the Crocus sativus flower over fire. Over 200,000 crocus stigmas must be harvested to produce one pound of saffron. This volume makes the herb extremely expensive, and it is often cut with other substances of a similar color (e.g., marigold) to keep the price down.

Because saffron is frequently used as a spice to flavor a variety of dishes, particularly in Mediterranean recipes, it can often be purchased by mail order and at gourmet food stores as well as at health food stores. The herb is usually sold in either powdered form or in its original threadlike stigma form. Saffron can cost as much to $10.00 per gram.

For medicinal purposes, saffron can be taken by mouth in powder, tincture, or liquid form. To make a liquid saffron decoction, mix 610 stigmas or strands of saffron in one cup of cold water, bring the mixture to a boil, and then let it simmer. The saffron is then strained out of the decoction, which can be drunk either hot or cold. An average recommended dose of saffron decoction is 1/21 cup daily.

Saffron should be stored in an airtight container in a cool location away from bright light to maintain its potency. The herb can be frozen. Properly stored saffron can be used for up to two years. A good measure of the herb's freshness and potency is its odor. If the saffron does not have a noticeable pungent smell, it is probably past its peak.

Precautions

Because saffron can stimulate uterine contractions, pregnant women should never take the herb for medicinal purposes.

Saffron should always be obtained from a reputable source that observes stringent quality control procedures and industry-accepted good manufacturing practices. Because

of its high cost, saffron is often found in adulterated form, so package labeling should be checked carefully for the type and quality of additional ingredients.

Botanical supplements are regulated by the FDA; however, they are currently not required to undergo any approval process before reaching the consumer market, and are classified as nutritional supplements rather than drugs. Legislation known as the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) was passed in 1994 in an effort to standardize the manufacture, labeling, composition, and safety of botanicals and supplements. In January 2000, the FDA's Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN) announced a ten-year plan for establishing and implementing these regulations by the year 2010.

Side effects

Although there are no known side effects or health hazards associated with recommended dosages of saffron preparations in healthy individuals, people with chronic medical conditions should consult with their healthcare professional before taking the herb. In addition, pregnant women should never take saffron, as the herb stimulates uterine contractions and may cause miscarriage.

Saffron can cause severe illness, kidney damage, central nervous system paralysis, and possible death at dosages of 12 g and higher. The symptoms of saffron poisoning include:

  • vomiting
  • uterine bleeding
  • intestinal cramping
  • bloody diarrhea
  • skin hemorrhaging
  • dizziness
  • stupor
  • paralysis

If any of these symptoms occur, the user discontinue the use of saffron immediately and seek emergency medical assistance.

Interactions

As of 2002, there are no reported negative interactions between saffron and other medications and herbs, although certain drugs with the same therapeutic properties as saffron may enhance the effect of the herb.

Resources

BOOKS

Hoffman, David. The Complete Illustrated Herbal. New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1999.

Medical Economics Corporation. The PDR for Herbal Medicines. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Corporation, 1998.

PERIODICALS

Martin, G., E. Goh, and A. W. Neff. "Evaluation of the Developmental Toxicity of Crocetin on Xenopus." Food and Chemical Toxicology 40 (July 2002): 959-964.

ORGANIZATIONS

Office of Dietary Supplements. National Institutes of Health. Building 31, Room 1B25. 31 Center Drive, MSC 2086. Bethesda, MD 20892-2086. (301) 435-2920. Fax: (301) 480-1845. http://odp.od.nih.gov/ods/

United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. 5100 Paint Branch Parkway, College Park, MD 20740. (888) SAFEFOOD. <www.cfsan.fda.gov>.

Paula Ford-Martin

Rebecca J. Frey, PhD

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"Saffron." Gale Encyclopedia of Alternative Medicine. . Encyclopedia.com. 18 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Saffron." Gale Encyclopedia of Alternative Medicine. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 18, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/medicine/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/saffron

"Saffron." Gale Encyclopedia of Alternative Medicine. . Retrieved August 18, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/medicine/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/saffron

saffron

saffron, name for a fall-flowering plant (Crocus sativus) of the family Iridaceae (iris family) and also for a dye obtained therefrom. The plant is native to Asia Minor, where for centuries it has been cultivated for its aromatic orange-yellow stigmas (see pistil). The stigmas, handpicked and dried, yield saffron powder, the source of the principal yellow dye of the ancient world. It was used for numerous purposes by many ancient cultures, including the Sumerians, Phoenicians, Minoans, Egyptians, Greeks, Romans, and Persians. The plant is still grown in limited quantities for the powder, which is used in medicinals and perfumes and for flavoring, especially in Mediterranean cooking. It has been estimated that the stigmas of about 4,000 flowers are required for one ounce of saffron powder. Saffron is mentioned in classical writings and in the Bible (Song 4.14). It is one of the crocuses sometimes cultivated for ornament; its blossoms are white or lilac in color. The safflower, sometimes used as a substitute for saffron and called false, or American, saffron, and the meadow saffron, or autumn crocus (Colchicum autumnale) are unrelated plants. True saffron is classified in the division Magnoliophyta, class Liliopsida, order Liliales, and family Iridaceae.

See P. Willard, Secrets of Saffron: The Vagabond Life of the World's Most Seductive Spice (2001).

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"saffron." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 18 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"saffron." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved August 18, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/saffron

saffron

saf·fron / ˈsafrən/ • n. 1. an orange-yellow flavoring, food coloring, and dye made from the dried stigmas of a crocus: [as adj.] saffron buns. ∎  the orange-yellow color of this. 2. (also saffron crocus) an autumn-flowering crocus (Crocus sativus) with reddish-purple flowers, native to warmer regions of Eurasia. Enormous numbers of flowers are required to produce a small quantity of the large red stigmas used for the spice. DERIVATIVES: saf·fron·y adj.

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"saffron." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. 18 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"saffron." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 18, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/saffron-0

"saffron." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Retrieved August 18, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/saffron-0

saffron

saffron (autumn crocus) Perennial crocus, native to Asia Minor and cultivated in Europe. It has purple or white flowers. The golden, dried stigmas of the plant are used as a flavouring or dye. Family Iridaceae; species Crocus sativus.

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"saffron." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. 18 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"saffron." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 18, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/saffron

"saffron." World Encyclopedia. . Retrieved August 18, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/saffron

saffron

saffron Orange powder from the stigmata of the saffron crocus, Crocus sativus; 1 g requires the stigmata of 1500 flowers and yields about 50 mg of extract. Used as natural food colour and spice. Very soluble in water.

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"saffron." A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition. . Encyclopedia.com. 18 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"saffron." A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 18, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/saffron

"saffron." A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition. . Retrieved August 18, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/saffron

saffron

saffron (orange-red product of) the plant Crocus sativus XIII; autumn crocus XV. ME. saffran, safron — (O)F. safran — Arab. za'farān.

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"saffron." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Encyclopedia.com. 18 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"saffron." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 18, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/saffron-1

"saffron." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Retrieved August 18, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/saffron-1

saffron

saffron Colouring and flavouring obtained from Crocus sativus and the dried stigmas that produce them. See CROCUS.

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"saffron." A Dictionary of Plant Sciences. . Encyclopedia.com. 18 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"saffron." A Dictionary of Plant Sciences. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 18, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/saffron

"saffron." A Dictionary of Plant Sciences. . Retrieved August 18, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/saffron

saffron

saffronAran, Arran, baron, barren, Darren, Karen, Sharon, yarran •Biafran, saffron •plastron • Saharan • Sumatran •heron, perron •rhododendron • chevron •Aaron, Charon, Dáil Eireann •apron •matron, patron •Libran •decahedron, dodecahedron, octahedron, polyhedron, tetrahedron •children • citron • grandchildren •stepchildren • godchildren •schoolchildren •Byron, Chiron, environ, Myron, siren •sporran, warren •squadron • Cochran •Andorran, Doran, Lauren, loran •cauldron •Kieran, Madeiran, schlieren •Honduran, Van Buren •Aldebaran • Auberon • Acheron •Cameron, Decameron •cateran, Lateran •veteran •dipteran, hemipteran •lepidopteran • Lutheran

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"saffron." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Encyclopedia.com. 18 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"saffron." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 18, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/saffron

"saffron." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Retrieved August 18, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/saffron