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bean

bean, name applied to the seeds of leguminous trees and shrubs and to various leguminous plants of the family Leguminosae (pulse family) with edible seeds or seed pods (legumes). The genera and species encompassed by the term bean are many and variable. The broad beans (Vicia faba, of the vetch genus), the soybean types (Glycine max), and a few lesser species were the only beans known to the Old World before the discovery of America, by which time the indigenous peoples had already developed most of the bean types still used today, e.g., the lima beans, kidney beans, string beans, shell beans, and pea beans. All these are species and varieties of Phaseolus, the "true" bean genus; the hereditary history of most is unknown, and hence the taxonomic distinctions are often still uncertain. The plants are easily cultivated but susceptible to several diseases, e.g., rusts, blights, wilts, and bean anthracnose (a fungus).

Types of Beans

In general, beans are warm-season annuals (although the roots of tropical species tend to be perennial) that grow erect (bush types) or as vines (pole or running types). Field beans are mostly the bush type and are used as stock feed. This has also become the principal use of the ancient large-seeded broad bean (called also the horse or Windsor bean), still widely grown in Europe but seldom as food for humans.

The common garden beans comprise several bush types and most of the pole types; the most often cultivated and most varied species, P. vulgata, is familiar as both types. P. vulgata is the French haricot and the Spanish frijole. String beans, snap beans, green and yellow wax beans, and some kidney beans are eaten as whole pods; several kidney beans, pinto beans, pea beans, and many other types are sold as mature dry seeds. The lima or butter beans (P. lunatus, including the former P. limensis), usually pole but sometimes bush types, have a long history; they have been found in prehistoric Peruvian graves. The sieva is a type of lima. The scarlet runner (P. multiflorus), grown in Europe for food, is mainly an ornamental vine in North America. The tepary (P. acutifolius latifolius), a small variety long grown by Indians in the SW United States, has been found better suited to hot, arid climates and is more prolific than the frijole.

Other beans are the hyacinth bean or lablab (Dolichos lablab), grown in E Asia and the tropics for forage and food and cultivated in North America as an ornamental vine; the asparagus bean or yard-long bean (Vigna sesquipedalis), grown in E Asia for food but often cultivated in the West as a curiosity; and the velvet bean (Stizolobium), cultivated in the S United States as a forage and cover crop. The carob, the cowpea or black-eyed pea, and the chickpea or garbanzo are among the many other legumes sometimes considered beans. The sacred bean of India is the seed of the Indian lotus (of the water lily family).

Uses of Beans

Because seeds contain much protein, beans are useful as a meat substitute and in different parts of the world are a characteristic item—often a staple—of the national fare. Baked beans, cooked for hours with pork or molasses or both, are a traditional New England dish. The Greeks and Romans used the broad bean for balloting—black seeds to signify opposition and white seeds agreement. This custom lingered in England in the election of the king and queen for Twelfth Night and other celebrations and was taken to the New World colony at Massachusetts Bay, where Indian beans were used.

Classification

Beans are classified in the division Magnoliophyta, class Magnoliopsida, order Rosales, family Leguminosae.

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"bean." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 25 Jul. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"bean." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (July 25, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/bean

"bean." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved July 25, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/bean

bean

bean from early times, the broad bean was a staple foodstuff (see beanfeast below), and there are various traditional rhymes recommending the best time of planting. Beans as an article of diet are proverbially associated with Leicestershire.

Beans were traditionally used in casting ballots, and the Latin tag Abstineto a fabis ‘Abstain from beans’ is understood as an injunction to abstain from meddling in affairs of state by casting one's vote in an election. The followers of Pythagoras abstained from eating beans, although the reason for this is not known.



In traditional Twelfth Night celebrations, a bean was baked into a cake, and the man in whose portion it was found became King of the Bean, and leader of the celebrations for the night.



Bean was also used to mean a coin or small sum of money, as in the informal not a bean for ‘no money’.


bean counter a person, typically an accountant or bureaucrat, perceived as placing excessive emphasis on controlling expenditure and budgets (bean here means a coin).
beanfeast a celebratory party with plenty of food and drink; originally, an annual dinner given by an employer to his employees, at which beans and bacon were regarded as an indispensable dish. The term is recorded from the early 19th century.

See also beans.

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"bean." The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. . Encyclopedia.com. 25 Jul. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"bean." The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. . Encyclopedia.com. (July 25, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/bean

"bean." The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. . Retrieved July 25, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/bean

bean

bean / bēn/ • n. 1. an edible seed, typically kidney-shaped, growing in long pods on certain leguminous plants. ∎  the hard seed of coffee, cocoa, and certain other plants. 2. a leguminous plant that bears such seeds in pods. • Phaseolus and other genera, family Leguminosae: numerous species, including the scarlet runner (P. coccineus), kidney bean (P. vulgaris), and broad bean (Vicia faba). 3. (also beans) inf. a very small amount or nothing at all of something (used emphatically): I didn't know beans about being a step-parent. 4. inf. a person's head, typically when regarded as a source of common sense. • v. [tr.] inf. hit (someone) on the head: Boone was nearly beaned by that wild pitch. PHRASES: full of beans inf. lively; in high spirits. a hill (or row) of beans anything of any importance or value: three little people don't amount to a hill of beans in this crazy world.

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"bean." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. 25 Jul. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"bean." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. (July 25, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/bean-1

"bean." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Retrieved July 25, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/bean-1

Beans

Beans

The consumption of beans was prohibited by Pythagoras and Plato to those who desired veracious dreams, as they tended to inflate; and for the purpose of truthful dreaming, the animal nature must be made to lie quiet. Cicero, however, laughed at this prohibition, asking if it is the stomach and not the mind with which one dreams.

Sources:

Cunningham, Scott. Cunningham's Encyclopedia of Magical Herbs. St. Paul, Minn.: Llewellyn Publications, 1985.

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"Beans." Encyclopedia of Occultism and Parapsychology. . Encyclopedia.com. 25 Jul. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"Beans." Encyclopedia of Occultism and Parapsychology. . Retrieved July 25, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/beans

bean

bean Plant grown for its edible seeds and seed pods. The broad bean (Vicia faba) is native to n Africa. The string bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is native to tropical South America, and is common in the USA; several varieties are cultivated. The runner (P. coccineus) has scarlet, rather than white or lilac flowers, and shorter, broader seeds. See also soya bean

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"bean." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. 25 Jul. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"bean." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. (July 25, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/bean

"bean." World Encyclopedia. . Retrieved July 25, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/bean

beans

beans a hill of beans something of little value (informal North American usage). The idea here is that even a large amount of something intrinsically worthless is of no value.
know how many beans make five be intelligent, be able to sum up the true facts of a situation.
spill the beans reveal a secret (perhaps with the idea of beans as used in a ballot).

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"beans." The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. . Encyclopedia.com. 25 Jul. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"beans." The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. . Encyclopedia.com. (July 25, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/beans

"beans." The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. . Retrieved July 25, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/beans

beans

beans Seeds of the family Leguminosae, eaten as food. Dried beans contain toxic lectins; uncooked or partially cooked beans cause vomiting, diarrhoea, and serious damage to the intestinal mucosa. The lectins are inactivated by boiling for about 10 min., but not by cooking below boiling point.

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"beans." A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition. . Encyclopedia.com. 25 Jul. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"beans." A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition. . Retrieved July 25, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/beans

bean

bean OE. bēan = OHG. bōna (G. bohne), ON. baun :- Gmc. *baunō, of unkn. orig.
Hence beanfeast XIX, whence beano orig. printers' colloq.; see -O.

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"bean." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Encyclopedia.com. 25 Jul. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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beans

beans See PHASEOLUS.

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"beans." A Dictionary of Plant Sciences. . Encyclopedia.com. 25 Jul. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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bean

beanAberdeen, Amin, aquamarine, baleen, bean, been, beguine, Benin, between, canteen, careen, Claudine, clean, contravene, convene, cuisine, dean, Dene, e'en, eighteen, fascine, fedayeen, fifteen, figurine, foreseen, fourteen, Francine, gean, gene, glean, gombeen, green, Greene, Halloween, intervene, Janine, Jean, Jeannine, Jolene, Kean, keen, Keene, Ladin, langoustine, latrine, lean, limousine, machine, Maclean, magazine, Malines, margarine, marine, Mascarene, Massine, Maxine, mean, Medellín, mesne, mien, Moline, moreen, mujahedin, Nadine, nankeen, Nazarene, Nene, nineteen, nougatine, obscene, palanquin, peen, poteen, preen, quean, queen, Rabin, Racine, ramin, ravine, routine, Sabine, saltine, sardine, sarin, sateen, scene, screen, seen, serene, seventeen, shagreen, shebeen, sheen, sixteen, spleen, spring-clean, squireen, Steen, submarine, supervene, tambourine, tangerine, teen, terrine, thirteen, transmarine, treen, tureen, Tyrrhene, ultramarine, umpteen, velveteen, wean, ween, Wheen, yean •soybean • buckbean

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