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Johnson, Virginia 1950–

Virginia Johnson 1950

Dancer and choreographer

At a Glance

Joined Revolutionary Troupe

Became Troupes Leading Ballerina

Danced Around the World

Sources

Virginia Johnson is the Dance Theatre of Harlems emotive prima ballerina. She has been with this historic and major ballet company since it was started in 1969. For more than two decades Johnson has served as a role model for younger black dancers and has exemplified American classical dancing. Not only has she exploded the myth that black women cant be classical ballerinas, she has one of the broadest repertoires in dance. She has excelled as a romantic ballerina and has been described as a lyrical performer.

Johnson also has been noted for her ability to dance both dramatic and contemporary roles. Her dancing, for the Dance Theatre of Harlem and for other established companies as a guest artist, has taken her around the world to countries like the former Soviet Union and South Africa. Johnson has danced throughout the United States, including performing for U.S. presidents Carter and Reagan; Europe; Australia; Israel; and Japan. During the late 1980s, Johnson was one of the first American ballerinas to visit what was then the Soviet Union, where she performed at the Kirov State Theater of Ballet and Opera in Leningrad.

Johnson has appeared on television, dancing in the Public Broadcasting Services (PBS) Dance in America series, and performed in Creole Giselle for the National Broadcasting Company (NBC). Multitalented, she danced in and choreographed the television film Ancient Voices of Children and even produced a solo concert at Marymount College, in New York City.

Over the years Johnson has performed in a variety of dances, including George Balanchines neoclassical Serenade and Allegro Brilliante; Glen Tetleys modern Voluntaries; Louis Johnsons Forces of Rhythm; and John Tarass Designs With Strings. She danced the title role in the Dance Theatre of Harlems unique revival of the classic Giselle, the girl in blue in Bronislava Nijinskas Les Biches, the Accused in Agnes de Milles dramatic Fall River Legend, Blanche in Valerie Bettiss A Streetcar Named Desire, and other roles.

Johnson has danced as a guest artist with the Washington and Capitol Ballets, in Washington, DC; the Chicago Opera Ballet; the Baltimore Civic Youth Ballet; the Detroit Symphony; and the Cleveland Ballet. She has gone on tour to Australia with Stars of the World Ballet in 1979; danced the main part in Giselle with the Ballet Nacional de Cuba in 1988; and appeared with the Royal Ballet, in 1992.

At a Glance

Born Virginia Alma Fairfax Johnson, January 25, 1950, in Washington, DC. Education: Attended Washington School of Ballet; New York Universitys School of the Arts; Fordham University; and the School of Visual Arts. Studied with Therrell Smith and Mary Day at the Washington School of Ballet, from 1953; later took classes with Arthur Mitchell and Karel Shook, in New York City.

Dancer, Dance Theatre of Harlem (DTH), New York City, 1969; soloist and companys prima ballerina; danced roles in ballets, including A Streetcar Named Desire, Les Biches, Giselle, Serenade, Allegro Brillante, Swan Lake (Act II), Othello, Greening, Footprints Dressed in Red, Toccata E Due Canzoni, Forces of Rhythm, Voluntaries, Designs With Strings, and Fall River Legend.

Performed for U.S. presidents Carter and Reagan. Toured abroad with DTH, including Festival of Two Worlds, Spoleto, Italy, 1971; London, 1974; the Soviet Union, 1988; served as a Community Outreach Instructor during DTHs South African tour, 1992. Guest artist for companies, including Washington Ballet, The Nutcracker; Alicia Alonsos Ballet de Cuba, Giselle; the Chicago Opera Ballet, 1975; the Stars of the World Ballet Australian tour, 1979; the Ballet Nacional de Cuba, 1988; the Baltimore Civic Youth Ballet, Detroit Symphony, and Cleveland Ballet, all in 1991; the Royal Ballet, Giselle, 1992; and Festival of Dance, Havana, Cuba. Appeared with the National Symphony at Lincoln Centers Fisher Hall, New York, NY. Television credits include the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) Dance in America series A Street Car Named Desire; a National Broadcasting Company (NBC) airing of DTHs Giselle; and as a dancer in and choreographer of the television film Ancient Voices of Children.

Awards: Young Achiever Award, National Council of Women; Outstanding Young Woman of America, National Council of Women, 1985; Dance Magazine Award, 1991.

Addresses: Office Dance Theatre of Harlem, 466 W. 152nd St., New York, New York 100311896.

Virginia Johnson was born on January 25, 1950, in Washington, DC. She began studying ballet in 1953, when she was just three years old, with Therrell Smith and Mary Day at the Washington School of Ballet. She continued studying on scholarship there as a teenager, and completed high school in the ballet schools academic division, graduating at the top of her class. In an interview in Dance Magazine in 1990, Johnson recalled that she was the only black kid in the school, but also observed, I never felt from anyone that I was in any way different. As she told Harpers Bazaar, Growing up in Washington, you dont think of blacks as a minority.

Joined Revolutionary Troupe

Even as a teenager Johnson was performing. She danced in opera productions put on by the American Light Opera Company; acted in childrens theater performances; and appeared in the Washington Ballets yearly performance of The Nutcracker Suite. Though she had doubts about becoming a ballerina because African American ballet dancers were rare, she nevertheless majored in dance at New York Universitys School of the Arts, where she received another scholarship. She was advised to consider contemporary and ethnic dancethe genres then considered open to talented young black people.

Johnson found that New York University (NYU) stressed modern dance too much for her taste. During her first year there she became interested in a ballet school in Harlem being run out of a church basement by the former New York City Ballet dancer Arthur Mitchell and became a charter member, first serving as a lecture-demonstrator to raise funds for the schools fledgling company and later, as a 19-year-old dancer for that company. I dont want to keep going to school, she wrote in her journal in 1969, excerpts of which were later published in The New York Times. I want to discover what it is to just be a dancer, to live dance. I wonder if I can do it.

Dancer Arthur Mitchell created the Dance Theatre of Harlem as a commitment to the Harlem community after the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. His aim was to establish a company of black dancers and add a new style to contemporary classical ballet. For Johnson, The timing was perfect, she told Harpers Bazaar. Dance Theatre of Harlem has eliminated all the old ideas about ballet and blacks, though I never said I was going to become a ballerina so that every little black girl in America could be one. I did it in the sense that, if you have a dream, whatever it is, if you put the discipline, and the commitment, and the love into it, you can achieve it.

Though she still encountered prejudice, such as when southern stagehands refused to raise the curtain on a bunch of blacks, according to her diary, Johnson also has said that race has played a primary role in her reaching her goals. A lot of things happened to me because I am black, she said in Life magazine. The scholarships, the special treatment, the extra breaks. Today I tell kids that if ballet is what they want to do, it makes no difference what color skin they have. The issues are whether they have the discipline, the consistency, the love of dance.

Became Troupes Leading Ballerina

In 1974, Johnson danced her first solo role for the Dance Theatre of Harlem and gradually became its star ballerina, garnering international acclaim and illustrating for modern viewers the emotional meaning of Romanticism during the 19th century. Measuring 58, with unusually long limbs, Johnson was a natural for legendary choreographer George Balanchines dances, performing them clearly and smoothly. Later, she began dancing new roles, challenging herself technically to meet their demands.

From the start Johnson was forced to rely on her will and stamina to get through her hectic performance schedule. During 1974 she wrote in her journal, Tomorrow starts the second week of our first New York season. Were just carrying the fatigue from week to week. To fight it is like a wrestling match against a much stronger opponent. It must be conquerable but not with brute force. It requires clever deception and most of all belief.

For Johnson, practicing and then performing and hearing the applause afterwards was reward enough. As she wrote in separate journal entries during 1980 and 1981, The applause was incredible, cheering and clapping, whistles. Its too much, being a part of this. Is there really a better life out there for me? Isnt this just what I wanted? Suddenly I begin to see how wonderful this life is. Walking into [an] empty [s]tudio sunlight slanting across the gray floor. Is there a more beautiful place than an empty ballet studio?

In the Dance Theatre of Harlems ballet Giselle, which was reset in Louisianas bayou country, Johnson blended romanticism with the Creole identity of the heroine. Of this historical and reportedly risky endeavor, which later proved very successful, Johnson wrote in her journal during 1984, I love the production, the sets, the costumes, but most of all I love the idea that we have learned something new and now get the chance to tell more people about itthe free blacks in Louisiana whose lives we are reliving by way of a ballet called Creole Giselle. It takes some of the scariness out of doing [it] and makes it something that I can feel connected to.

Of her 1987 performance in Giselle, Dance Magazine wrote, Virginia Johnsons evenly fluid and gracious phrasing tends, in Act 2, to swamp the steps in mood. Yet she is glorious elsewhere and so subtle an actress. Two years later that magazine praised her performance in the same dance as touching and authoritative. In 1989, when Johnson was performed in Les Biches in New York, Dance Magazine described her as scintillating as the femme fatale, slicing her way in arabesque into a liaison with the choicest male.

Danced Around the World

In the early 1990s Johnson traveled to the politically charged post-apartheid country of South Africa with the Dance Theatre of Harlem to perform at the Johannesburg Civic Theater and received positive public response. In her journal during 1992, she commented, I believe our visit has helped people understand what place art has in their lives: It can bring together disparate groups, it can create the energy to change, and it can create the space for change.

When Johnson danced in Fall River Legend as a guest artist for the Cleveland Ballet in Cleveland during 1991, Dance Magazine wrote that she created a complete woman, capable of love and joy as well as rage and violence. Among the many prizes Johnson has won throughout her career, Dance Magazine went on to bestow upon her an award honoring her contribution to dance and her distinguished career.

In 1994, when Johnson danced the role of Blanche in A Streetcar Named Desire at the Dance Theatre of Harlems 25th anniversary season at Lincoln Center, in New York City, the New York Post described her performance of Blanche as fiercely conceived and delicately executed, as well as tightly controlled, piteous and ultimately tragic. The New York Times praised her astonishing power in the role and added, Ms. Johnson, surrounded by flashback characters that recall the heroines traumas, could easily make her role passive. Yet her performance embodies a full emotional range; by the end, the cringing woman in pink chiffon becomes a grand dame, albeit an insane one, on parade.

Johnson has been described as a discreetly private single woman who has spoken frankly about what it means to be a professional dancer. It entails sacrifice, she said in Harpers Bazaar. But its not like were surviving on denial. Were not nuns. Were living off the pleasure of it. Its fun. She has also spoken about growing older. Its a surprise, she said, but maturity has only made me realize how much more there is to do. I think the more you do something the greater your knowledge of what there is to be done. The two feed one anotherthe search and the achievementlike a giant fireball. I find I have more energy and motivation than ever.

Though the Dance Theatre of Harlem has experienced its share of economic and social problems, including layoffs and disharmony, those committed to it have kept it going. Johnson has remained one of the brightest flames in a fireball that may never burn out. During 1994 and 1995 Johnson was performing and touring around the country with the Dance Theatre of Harlem on a 10-city tour.

Sources

Books

International Dictionary of Ballet, volume 1, 1993, pp. 72932.

Periodicals

Ballet News, January 1983.

Business Day, September 2, 1992.

Dance Magazine, April 1981; October 1987, pp. 904; June 1989; November 1989, pp. 6970, 72; October 1990; April 1991, pp. 1415; March 1992, p. 72.

Dance News, January 1980.

Harpers Bazaar, October 1988, pp. 185, 236.

Life, Spring 1988, pp. 728.

New York Post, March 21, 1994.

New York Times, September 2, 1992, pp. C11-C12;

March 6, 1994, sec. 2, pp. 35, 37; March 19, 1994; March 20, 1994, sec. 2, p. 4. Vogue, March 1988, pp. 150, 155.

Additional information for this profile was obtained from the Dance Theatre of Harlem.

Alison Carb Sussman

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Johnson, Virginia E.

Virginia E. Johnson

1925-
Researcher in human sexuality who co-wrote with her then-husband, William H. Masters, Human Sexual Response in 1966.

In collaboration with Dr. William Howell Masters , psychologist and sex therapist Virginia E. Johnson pioneered the study of human sexuality under laboratory conditions. She and Masters published the results of their study as a book entitled Human Sexual Response in 1966, causing an immediate sensation. As part of her work at the Reproductive Biology Research Foundation in St. Louis and later at the Masters and Johnson Institute, she counseled many clients and taught sex therapy to many professional practitioners.

Johnson was born Virginia Eshelman on February 11, 1925, in Springfield, Missouri, to Hershel Eshelman, a farmer, and Edna (Evans) Eshelman. The elder of two children, she began school in Palo Alto, California, where her family had moved in 1930. When they returned to Missouri three years later, she was ahead of her school peers and skipped several grades. She studied piano and voice, and read extensively. She entered Drury College in Springfield in 1941. After her freshman year, she was hired to work in the state insurance office, a job she held for four years. Her mother, a republican state committeewoman, introduced her to many elected officials, and Johnson often sang for them at meetings. These performances led to a job as a country music singer for radio station KWTO in Springfield, where her stage name was Virginia Gibson. She studied at the University of Missouri and later at the Kansas City Conservatory of Music. In 1947, she became a business writer for the St. Louis Daily Record. She also worked briefly on the marketing staff of KMOX-TV, leaving that position in 1951.

In the early 1940s she married a Missouri politician, but the marriage lasted only two days. Her marriage to an attorney many years her senior also ended in divorce . On June 13, 1950, she married George V. Johnson, an engineering student and leader of a dance band. She sang with the band until the birth of her two children, Scott Forstall and Lisa Evans. In 1956, the Johnsons divorced.

Chosen by William Howell Masters as research associate

In 1956, contemplating a return to college for a degree in sociology, Johnson applied for a job at the Washington University employment office. William Howell Masters, associate professor of clinical obstetrics and gynecology, had requested an assistant to interview volunteers for a research project. He personally chose Johnson, who fitted the need for an outgoing, intelligent, mature woman who was preferably a mother. Johnson began work on January 2, 1957, as a research associate, but soon advanced to research instructor.

Gathering scientific data by means of electroencephalography, electrocardiography, and the use of color monitors, Masters and Johnson measured and analyzed 694 volunteers. They were careful to protect the privacy

of their subjects, who were photographed in various modes of sexual stimulation. In addition to a description of the four stages of sexual arousal, other valuable information was gained from the photographs, including evidence of the failure of some contraceptives, the discovery of a vaginal secretion in some women that prevents conception, and the observation that sexual enjoyment need not decrease with age. In 1964, Masters and Johnson created the non-profit Reproductive Biology Research Foundation in St. Louis and began treating couples for sexual problems. Originally listed as a research associate, Johnson became assistant director of the Foundation in 1969 and co-director in 1973.

In 1966, Masters and Johnson released their book Human Sexual Response, in which they detailed the results of their studies. Although the book was written in dry, clinical terms and intended for medical professionals, its titillating subject matter made it front-page news and a runaway best seller, with over 300,000 volumes distributed by 1970. While some reviewers accused the team of dehumanizing and scientizing sex, overall professional and critical response was positive.

Develops sex therapy institute

At Johnson's suggestion, the two researchers went on the lecture circuit to discuss their findings and appeared on such television programs as NBC's Today show and ABC's Stage '67. Their book and their public appearances heightened public interest in sex therapy, and a long list of clients developed. Couples referred to their clinic would spend two weeks in intensive therapy and have periodic follow-ups for five years. In a second book, Human Sexual Inadequacy, published in 1970, Masters and Johnson discuss the possibility that sex problems are more cultural than physiological or psychological. In 1975, they wrote The Pleasure Bond: A New Look at Sexuality and Commitment, which differs from previous volumes in that it was written for the average reader. This book describes total commitment and fidelity to the partner as the basis for an enduring sexual bond. To expand counseling, Masters and Johnson trained dual-sex therapy teams and conducted regular workshops for college teachers, marriage counselors, and other professionals.

After the release of this second book, Masters divorced his first wife and married Johnson on January 7, 1971, in Fayetteville, Arkansas. They continued their work at the Reproductive Biology Research Foundation, and in 1973 founded the Masters and Johnson Institute. Johnson was co-director of the institute, running the everyday business, and Masters concentrated on scientific work. Johnson, who never received a college degree, was widely recognized along with Masters for her contributions to human sexuality research. Together they received several awards, including the Sex Education and Therapists Award in 1978 and Biomedical Research Award of the World Sexology Association in 1979.

In 1981, the team sold their lab and moved to another location in St. Louis, where they had a staff of 25 and a long waiting list of clients. Their book Homosexuality in Perspective, released shortly before the move, documents their research on gay and lesbian sexual practice and homosexual sexual problems and their work with "gender-confused" individuals who sought a "cure" for their homosexuality . One of their most controversial conclusions from their 10-year study of 84 men and women was their conviction that homosexuality is primarily not physical, emotional, or genetic, but a learned behavior. Some reviewers hailed the team's claims of success in "converting" homosexuals. Others, however, observed that the handpicked individuals who participated in the study were not a representative sample; moreover, they challenged the team's assumption that heterosexual performance alone was an accurate indicator of a changed sexual preference.

The institute had many associates who assisted in research and writing. Robert Kolodny, an M.D. interested in sexually transmitted diseases, coauthored the book Crisis: Heterosexual Behavior in the Age of AIDS with Masters and Johnson in 1988. The book, commented Stephen Fried in Vanity Fair, "was politically incorrect in the extreme": it predicted a large-scale outbreak of the virus in the heterosexual community and, in a chapter meant to document how little was known of the AIDS virus, suggested that it might be possible to catch it from a toilet seat. Several prominent members of the medical community questioned the study, and many accused the authors of sowing hysteria. Adverse publicity hurt the team, who were distressed because they felt the medical community had turned against them. The number of therapy clients at the institute declined.

The board of the institute was quietly dissolved and William Young, Johnson's son-in-law, became acting director. Johnson went into semi-retirement. On February 19, 1992, Young announced that after 21 years of marriage, Masters and Johnson were filing for divorce because of differences about goals relating to work and retirement. Following the divorce, Johnson took most of the institute's records with her and is continuing her work independently.

Further Reading

Duberman, Martin Bauml. Review of "Homosexuality in perspective." New Republic. (June 16, 1979): 2431.

Fried, Stephen. "The new sexperts." Vanity Fair. (December 1992): 132.

Masters, William Howell and Robert Kolodny. Masters and Johnson on sex and human loving. Little, Brown, 1986.

"Repairing the conjugal bed." Time. (March 25, 1970.)

Robinson, Paul. The modernization of sex: Havelock Ellis, Albert Kinsey, William Masters, and Virginia Johnson. Cornell University Press, 1988.

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Virginia E. Johnson

Virginia E. Johnson

Virginia E. Johnson (born 1925) is a researcher in human sexuality. With her then-husband, William H. Masters, she cowrote Human Sexual Response in 1966.

In collaboration with Dr. William Howell Masters, psychologist and sex therapist Virginia E. Johnson pioneered the study of human sexuality under laboratory conditions. She and Masters published the results of their study as a book entitled Human Sexual Response in 1966, causing an immediate sensation. As part of her work at the Reproductive Biology Research Foundation in St. Louis and later at the Masters and Johnson Institute, she counseled many clients and taught sex therapy to many professional practitioners.

Johnson was born Virginia Eshelman on February 11, 1925, in Springfield, Missouri, to Hershel Eshelman, a farmer, and Edna (Evans) Eshelman. The elder of two children, she began school in Palo Alto, California, where her family had moved in 1930. When they returned to Missouri three years later, she was ahead of her school peers and skipped several grades. She studied piano and voice, and read extensively. She entered Drury College in Springfield in 1941. After her freshman year, she was hired to work in the state insurance office, a job she held for four years. Her mother, a republican state committeewoman, introduced her to many elected officials, and Johnson often sang for them at meetings. These performances led to a job as a country music singer for radio station KWTO in Springfield, where her stage name was Virginia Gibson. She studied at the University of Missouri and later at the Kansas City Conservatory of Music. In 1947, she became a business writer for the St. Louis Daily Record. She also worked briefly on the marketing staff of KMOX-TV, leaving that position in 1951.

In the early 1940s she married a Missouri politician, but the marriage lasted only two days. Her marriage to an attorney many years her senior also ended in divorce. On June 13, 1950, she married George V. Johnson, an engineering student and leader of a dance band. She sang with the band until the birth of her two children, Scott Forstall and Lisa Evans. In 1956, the Johnsons divorced.

In 1956, contemplating a return to college for a degree in sociology, Johnson applied for a job at the Washington University employment office. William Howell Masters, associate professor of clinical obstetrics and gynecology, had requested an assistant to interview volunteers for a research project. He personally chose Johnson, who fitted the need for an outgoing, intelligent, mature woman who was preferably a mother. Johnson began work on January 2, 1957, as a research associate, but soon advanced to research instructor.

Gathering scientific data by means of electroencephalography, electrocardiography, and the use of color monitors, Masters and Johnson measured and analyzed 694 volunteers. They were careful to protect the privacy of their subjects, who were photographed in various modes of sexual stimulation. In addition to a description of the four stages of sexual arousal, other valuable information was gained from the photographs, including evidence of the failure of some contraceptives, the discovery of a vaginal secretion in some women that prevents conception, and the observation that sexual enjoyment need not decrease with age. In 1964, Masters and Johnson created the non-profit Reproductive Biology Research Foundation in St. Louis and began treating couples for sexual problems. Originally listed as a research associate, Johnson became assistant director of the Foundation in 1969 and co-director in 1973.

In 1966, Masters and Johnson released their book Human Sexual Response, in which they detailed the results of their studies. Although the book was written in dry, clinical terms and intended for medical professionals, its titillating subject matter made it front-page news and a runaway best seller, with over 300,000 volumes distributed by 1970. While some reviewers accused the team of dehumanizing and scientizing sex, overall professional and critical response was positive.

At Johnson's suggestion, the two researchers went on the lecture circuit to discuss their findings and appeared on such television programs as NBC's Today show and ABC's Stage '67. Their book and their public appearances heightened public interest in sex therapy, and a long list of clients developed. Couples referred to their clinic would spend two weeks in intensive therapy and have periodic follow-ups for five years. In a second book, Human Sexual Inadequacy, published in 1970, Masters and Johnson discuss the possibility that sex problems are more cultural than physiological or psychological. In 1975, they wrote The Pleasure Bond: A New Look at Sexuality and Commitment, which differs from previous volumes in that it was written for the average reader. This book describes total commitment and fidelity to the partner as the basis for an enduring sexual bond. To expand counseling, Masters and Johnson trained dual-sex therapy teams and conducted regular workshops for college teachers, marriage counselors, and other professionals.

After the release of this second book, Masters divorced his first wife and married Johnson on January 7, 1971, in Fayetteville, Arkansas. They continued their work at the Reproductive Biology Research Foundation, and in 1973 founded the Masters and Johnson Institute. Johnson was co-director of the institute, running the everyday business, and Masters concentrated on scientific work. Johnson, who never received a college degree, was widely recognized along with Masters for her contributions to human sexuality research. Together they received several awards, including the Sex Education and Therapists Award in 1978 and Biomedical Research Award of the World Sexology Association in 1979.

In 1981, the team sold their lab and moved to another location in St. Louis, where they had a staff of twenty-five and a long waiting list of clients. Their book Homosexuality in Perspective, released shortly before the move, documents their research on gay and lesbian sexual practice and homosexual sexual problems and their work with "gender-confused" individuals who sought a "cure" for their homosexuality. One of their most controversial conclusions from their ten-year study of eighty-four men and women was their conviction that homosexuality is primarily not physical, emotional, or genetic, but a learned behavior. Some reviewers hailed the team's claims of success in "converting" homosexuals. Others, however, observed that the handpicked individuals who participated in the study were not a representative sample; moreover, they challenged the team's assumption that heterosexual performance alone was an accurate indicator of a changed sexual preference.

The institute had many associates who assisted in research and writing. Robert Kolodny, an M.D. interested in sexually transmitted diseases, coauthored the book Crisis: Heterosexual Behavior in the Age of AIDS with Masters and Johnson in 1988. The book, commented Stephen Fried in Vanity Fair, "was politically incorrect in the extreme": it predicted a large-scale outbreak of the virus in the heterosexual community and, in a chapter meant to document how little was known of the AIDS virus, suggested that it might be possible to catch it from a toilet seat. Several prominent members of the medical community questioned the study, and many accused the authors of sowing hysteria. Adverse publicity hurt the team, who were distressed because they felt the medical community had turned against them. The number of therapy clients at the institute declined.

The board of the institute was quietly dissolved and William Young, Johnson's son-in-law, became acting director. Johnson went into semi-retirement. On February 19, 1992, Young announced that after twenty-one years of marriage, Masters and Johnson were filing for divorce because of differences about goals relating to work and retirement. Following the divorce, Johnson took most of the institute's records with her and is continuing her work independently.

Further Reading

Robinson, Paul, The Modernization of Sex: Havelock Ellis, Albert Kinsey, William Masters, and Virginia Johnson, Cornell University Press, 1988.

Duberman, Martin Bauml, review of, Homosexuality in Perspective, New Republic, June 16, 1979, pp. 24-31.

Fried, Stephen, "The New Sexperts," in Vanity Fair, December 1992, p. 132.

"Repairing the Conjugal Bed," in Time, March 25, 1970. □

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