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Challenger Expedition

Challenger expedition

The British Navy vessel H.M.S. Challenger circumnavigated the world between December 1872 and May 1876, conducting history's first systematic, scientific investigation of the world's oceans . The Challenger expedition gathered a body of data that has been matched by few voyages of discovery. The science of modern oceanography essentially began with the Challenger expedition.

The Challenger was a 200 foot (67 m), three-masted, square-rigged wooden sailing ship equipped with an auxiliary steam engine. Fifteen of its 17 gun bays were rebuilt as laboratories, workrooms, and storage spaces for scientific equipment. It carried a crew of five scientists, an official artist, 20 officers, and about 200 sailors.

The Challenger began its voyage by crossing the Atlantic four times, discovering the Mid-Atlantic Ridge in the process. It then visited Africa , Antarctica , New Zealand, New Guinea, China, Japan, Hawaii, the South Seas , and the tip of South America , studying not only the sea itself but the fauna, flora, and geography of numerous islands. The Challenger team made 362 regularly-spaced midocean measurements of depth, temperature , and currents and used special dredges to collect samples of life, ooze, and rocks from the ocean floor. This expedition produced the first global cross-section of the ocean's depth profile and identified over 4,700 ocean-dwelling animal species never before known.

The Challenger returned triumphantly to Europe freighted with tens of thousands of photographs, drawings, measurements, and biological and geological samples. Publication of the results took 20 years and required 50 thick volumes totaling almost 30,000 pages. Data from the Challenger expedition are still cited occasionally in modern scientific literature.

A century after the first Challenger expedition, the research drillship Glomar Challenger (19681983) cruised the world's oceans gathering data that were also to prove revolutionary for Earth sciences. Its deep-sea core samples confirmed the theory of continental drift and revealed for the first time that the oceanic crust is extremely young compared to the continental crust.

See also Deep sea exploration

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Challenger expedition

Challenger expedition, British oceanographic expedition under the direction of the Scottish professor Charles Wyville Thompson and the British naturalist Sir John Murray. Taking place from 1872 to 1876, it opened the era of descriptive oceanography. The team sailed in the converted 18-gun corvette Challenger, the first vessel specifically equipped for general oceanographic research. The expedition cruised almost 69,000 nautical mi (130,000 km) in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Antarctic oceans, gathering data on temperature, currents, water chemistry, marine organisms, and bottom deposits at 362 oceanographic stations scattered over 14 million sq mi (36 million sq km) of ocean floor. Its major contributions, covered in a 50-volume, 29,500-page report that took 23 years to compile, included the first systematic plot of currents and temperatures in the ocean; a map of bottom deposits that has not been changed much by more recent studies; an outline of the main contours of the ocean basins, incorporating the discovery of the mid-Atlantic Ridge and the then record 26,900-ft (8,200-m) Challenger Deep in the Mariana Trench; the discovery of 715 new genera and 4,717 new species of ocean life forms; and the discovery of prodigious life forms even at great depths in the ocean.

See H. N. Mosely, A Naturalist on the Challenger (1879); Sir C. Wyville Thompson, Voyage of the Challenger (2 vol., 1877); E. Linklater, The Voyage of the Challenger (1972).

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Challenger expedition

Challenger expedition (1872–5)The first expedition to explore the deep oceans, led by John Murray, in the British naval ship HMS Challenger. With a staff of biologists, chemists, and geologists, the expedition surveyed the Atlantic, Indian, Antarctic, and Pacific Oceans, taking soundings and collecting specimens in dredges. Results of research into the material collected during the expedition were published between 1880 and 1895 as a long series of reports. The extent of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge was first demonstrated by the crew of the Challenger. See also Thomson, SirCharlesWyville.

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Challenger expedition

Challenger expedition (1872–5) The first expedition to explore the deep oceans was led by John Murray, in the British naval ship HMS Challenger. With a staff of biologists, chemists, and geologists, the expedition surveyed the Atlantic, Indian, Antarctic, and Pacific Oceans, taking soundings and collecting specimens in dredges. The extent of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge was first demonstrated by the crew of the Challenger.

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Challenger expedition

Challenger expedition (1872–76) British expedition in oceanographic research. The Challenger ship comprised a staff of six naturalists headed by Charles Wyville Thompson. She sailed c.128,000km (69,000 nautical mi) making studies of the life, water and seabed in the three main oceans.

http://www.oceansonline.com

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